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2019
Saturday, October 26th
11:00 AM

“Bitcoin” The Development of Virtual Money in Kosovo

Ardian Uka, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Misret Beqiri, KosProd

Pristina, Kosovo

11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The economic development of a country is definitely taking care of the wellbeing of citizens, therefore the development of virtual money such as Bitcoin would speed up the transitions of the banking market in Kosovo to offer extreme cheaper fees, that is actually offers today. When we talk about virtual money, they may pose a danger to society but the benefits of its purpose to save money (lower fees) from the actual banking fees have the upper hand. This project intends to present the importance of virtual money and the activities of the Central Bank of Kosovo that should consider while developing the Bitcoin system in Kosovo market. Hence, as a prior goal of this project is the intertwining of different academic opinions regarding virtual money such as Bitcoin and offering proper recommendation to the Central Bank of Kosovo that should offer the support to the market with information in regards to virtual money. To be crystal clear about the role and importance of virtual money, we have also done primary research in the field. We have interviewed people in urban places with private and official positions, in total the data were collected from 66 surveyors, which have answered 12 semi structural questions after they had an informing conversation with the authors of the project. The research was done during the spring of 2019 and the results collected by the research and the analysis of their presentation are presented by the Excel program and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The results by the research show that virtual money “Bitcoin” has enough space to work in Kosovo’s market because the fees for national and international transfers are still high and virtual money could give a solution to that. Thus the immediate commitment of the Central Bank to inform the citizen is more than necessary for a stable development in the financial sector.

Corporate Governance in Insurance Companies – Need or Trend?

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Vesna Paunkoska Dodevska, Triglav Insurance Company JSC
Bashkim Nuredini, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

In recent decades corporate governance is very actual topic, especially in financial institutions, and more and more investors and regulators in the insurance industry have insisted on establishing an adequate corporate governance system. But what exactly is corporate governance? Is it just a trend or a real need for the insurance companies?

Good corporate governance is undoubtedly necessary to maintain a fair, safe and stable insurance sector that will protect the interests of insurers, which in return will contribute to the stability of the financial system as a whole. The insurance industry, like other parts of the financial system, is undergoing a number of changes and that is why insurance companies need to have a stable corporate system in order to face changes easily and respond adequately to rapid sociological, technological changes and economic development.

The benefits of good corporate governance are unquestionable - they provide for greater competitiveness of insurance companies, increased efficiency and corporate results, greater company asset value and higher company reputation, all of which are important factors in the modern business environment.

Finally, it should be noted that corporate governance is not a once-established system, but a continuous process that needs to be constantly upgraded and improved. The market is the one that will evaluate and value the commitment of the insurance companies in the process of building an adequate system of good corporate governance in the long run.

Internet of Things to Help SDGs Implementation: A case of Albania and Kosovo, Opportunities and Challenges

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Aida Bitri, Aleksander Moisiu University of Durres
Galia Marinova, Technical University Sofia
Edmond Hajrizi, University of Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Internet of Things (IoT) seems to be one of the most interesting and transforming technological trends. Developed countries are investing a lot of resources in research and infrastructure to provide all it is needed for a better future through IoT. The aim of the paper is to highlight the potential use of IoT in developing countries as a means to achieve their sustainability goals based on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), part of Agenda 2030 by United Nations (UN). Albania and Kosovo, both developing countries, are struggling with their efforts towards sustainability goals. On the other hand there are a lot of opportunities and there is a lot of potential that if used properly and smart might help these countries grow and develop. This paper analyzes opportunities and challenges of IoT implementation to help Albania and Kosovo achieve SDGs.

Is Television Changing its Position on the Promotional Goals of Companies?

Nehat Ramadani, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Television has been one of the key media for many years, being used as an intermediate in the promotional goals of companies. This study deals with the recent television’s position, while the study is conducted in Kosova’s market. The paper deals with citizens' preferences regarding the position of national televisions in the country. The descriptive research approach is used, while comparative analysis takes a key role. Moreover, the study analyzes the behavior of potential consumers regarding the time they spend in front of the television, the specific viewership during the day, the most watched productions, the best television position etc. The study reveals more than half of respondents who are still using television, they use it for the news. This paper concludes that during recent years, the promotional role of television has faded significantly, being replaced mainly with the social media.

Money as a Human Invention: One More Look at Their Evolution

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Vanya Tsonkova, University of VelikoTurnovo, Bulgaria
Valentina Stoyanova, University of VelikoTurnovo, Bulgaria

Pristina, Kosovo

11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The article deals with the authors’ reading on the genesis of money from commodity money to digital money and crypto currencies. The authors try to define the nature of money despite the diversity and changes of their forms. The determinants imposing expansion of geographical scope in the use of certain currencies are analyzed. The authors think that there are two independent ways for the future (r)evolution of money. One is the development of the classic form of money – gold, but especially as a store of value. The other way is the development of digital forms of certain powerful national currencies. The future of crypto currencies as real currencies, fulfilling all the functions of money, is questionable.

Revisiting the Ties between Brand Personality and Brand Engagement

Jitender Kumar, Birla Institute of Management Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The authors objectively explore that how brand personality, brand personality appeal, and customer brand identification stimulate brand engagement by employing personality theory, congruity theory, and identity theory. The model was tested through Structural equation modeling with the data collected from 413 brand community members in India. Empirical analysis reveals that brand personality and brand personality appeal, together, creates a stronger brand engagement model. Customer brand identification partially mediates the relationship between brand personality and brand engagement as well as between brand personality appeal and brand engagement. Brand personality is necessary but not sufficient in generating higher levels of brand engagement and brand personality appeal is equally important for generating customer brand engagement. The study adds a new driver of customer brand engagement in the form of brand personality appeal. The mediation analysis highlights the role of customer brand identification to the existing relationship between brand personality and brand engagement. Apart from the focus of brand personalities, brand personality appeal should also be carefully moderated to have engaged customers. A sense of brand identification also needs to be maintained along with the brand personality and brand personality appeal. The study uniquely introduces the role of brand personality appeal in engagement domain. The enhanced predictive power displayed by the combination of brand personality and brand personality appeal remained underexplored to date.

Social media marketing and Business Enterprises in European Union

Gonxhe Beqiri, University for Business and Technology
Rajan Arapi, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Nowadays various businesses are achieving amazing results being advertised via social media marketing. Social media marketing is fast, simple and represents a different way to socialize the business with it’s stakeholders. Because social media is driven by consumers and in this area is currently experiencing growth, enterprises are more exposed to the market and have their advantages to promote their products. Moreover, enterprises are considered as the main driver for innovation, employment and social and local integration so it is necessary for them to create the best environment possible for their consumers and to have a strategic online presence.

This paper aims to analyse the relation between social media marketing and bussines enteprises in European Union. Hence, it presents the association between conceptual framework and statistical analysis regarding the EU enterprises in relation to social media marketing field and its channels (e-mail, social networks, blogs, etc.). How this type of marketing has affected and improved their business and in what form it is expected to affect in the future.

The methodology used in this paper is based on secondary data analysis and comparative analysis. Although the data available in relation to the subject matter are limited the research of this paper will analyze the use of social media marketing from various enterprises in the European Union between 2013 and 2017, based on EUROSTAT reports.

The results idicate that Business Enterprises in European Union countries (EU-28) between year 2013 and 2017 have increased the use of social media for their marketing activities from 22% to 40%. Compared to other media categories social media such as: social networks, multimedia websites; Blogs or microblogs; dominate the most. In order to connect with their consumers, social networks were used by nearly 50% bussines enterprises of total 28 European Union countries.

The Effect of Accepting External Influence on Emotional Labor: A Study on White-Collar Workers in Turkey

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Buket Akdol, Istanbul University
Gamze Guzin Kazakoglu, Robert College of Istanbul

Pristina, Kosovo

11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

It was many years after Industrial Revolution that the threat child labor and working under inhumanitarian conditions poses as physical burden to laborers and the severity of the fact that they had to work for many hours under such ardous conditions were realized. However, as industry developed and the concept of being a laborer evolved into a task that requires emotional assets of laborers other than physical burden as well, the “emotional labor” of workers was started to be investigated as a concept. First brought up by American sociologist Arlie Hochschild in 1979 in her book “The Managed Heart” that discusses commercialization of human feelings, emotional labor was investigated on many concepts like gender, age, education status, and work sectors as the years passed. Emotional labor was defined as “white collar workers’ control of their emotions and them exhibiting the emotions their business owners demand for consumer satisfaction and positive relationships” between white collar workers and shareholders.

This study empirically investigated the role of accepting external influence, a factor of authenticity, on emotional labor among the white collar workers in Turkey. As service-oriented total quality management applications requires constant communication with colleagues, customers, suppliers, competitors, stakeholders, white collar workers are the ones that are being required to perform emotional labor and being exposed to face their authentic selves via accepting external influence or not. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of accepting external influence on emotional labor. Data was collected via Hospitality Emotional Labor Scale (HELS) developed by Chu and Murmann (2006), and The Authenticity Scale developed by Wood et. al. (2008). There are 201 participants, 126 were female and 75 were male who work in a variety of industries in Turkey. Analysis was conducted by the SPSS program.

The Impact of Human Capital on Technology-Intensive Exports, with Special Reference to Transition Economies of Central and Eastern Europe

Arta Mulliqi, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Pristina, Kosovo

11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

This paper examines the impact of human capital on technology-intensive exports from 27 European countries, with special reference to transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe. The empirical investigation makes use of various human capital and technology-intensive export measures which allows the drawing of more comprehensive inference. To assess the robustness of the results, a diversified modelling strategy is employed. The empirical assessment provides sufficient evidence to support the hypothesized positive link between the share of population who have attained tertiary education and the share of medium and high-technology exports for the full sample of countries, the effect being relatively stronger for the high-technology category. When transition and non-transition economies are assessed separately, the empirical evidence is mixed. The findings from the export sophistication analysis appear to support the importance of the share of population with tertiary education for the export sophistication of non-transition economies only. Some supporting evidence is also found for the positive role of the quality of education.

What Affects the Market Share in Banking: Evidence from the Old and New EU Members and Candidate Countries?

Bashkim Nurboja, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Marko Kosak, University of Ljubljana

Pristina, Kosovo

11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

In this study we investigate how cost efficiency and risk affects market share in European banking industry. In contrast to other studies, we have included risk as determinant of market share. The results revealed that risk and efficiency are positively correlated with market share of assets, loans and deposits. Moreover, we found that banks in transition countries gains less market share as a result of being more efficient than banks in European developed countries. The model was estimated by using the system GMM model in order to account for dynamics and to avoid the endogeneity problem. We have used annual data for 36 European countries’ banks for the years 2007–2015.

1:30 PM

Clustering - Good or Bad idea!?

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Ermira Shehu, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Osman Sejfijaj, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Fatmir Memaj, University of Tirana

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Clusters tend to be a key factor for a successful macroeconomic development and microeconomics business environment. Execution of cluster projects is one of the strategic objectives of many counties, as it contributes to the economic development of regions and increases the level of innovative development of enterprises which form a cluster. Cluster mapping efforts create a set of data and insights on economic activity across industries and locations. With this paper we will try to present the advantages and disadvantages of being in cluster. All huge projects have obstacles and benefits, but in this paper we will try to summaries the facts of clusters, analyzing data from states in Balkan region and presenting some useful information for enterprises which are thinking for sector development opportunities.

Digitalization in Control

Plamen Iliev, New Bulgarian University

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

The development of the economy, business and market globally requires an increasing investment in digitalization, the business of complex processes. Despite the emergence of Eastern European countries, in the future, they need to innovate in digitalization in order to increase the efficiency of business operations, profits, increase productivity and open up new markets. All of this has to do with controlling and auditing the business. The relentless transformational impact of IT redefines the very figure of IT auditing, forcing auditors to rethink established practices, process and calibrate their functions in the digital age. Technological advances are inherent in digitalisation and will undoubtedly change the internal audit, audit of the Court of Auditors, tax control and etc.

E-Recruitment Strategies: A Review

Blerim Dragusha, University of Prishtina
Saso Josimovski, University “Ss.Cyril and Methodius
Dimitar Jovevski, University “Ss.Cyril and Methodius

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Electronic recruitment as a relatively new phenomenon of the modern recruitment process changed the nature of the recruitment strategies. The digital world has brought a new dimension to recruitment strategies. Internet innovation of Web 2.0 technologies has changed the overall recruitment process. E-Recruitment significantly enhances the recruitment process also known as online recruitment or internet recruiting. Electronic Recruitment has significantly improved the efficiency and effectiveness of recruitment, but the limitation is that it does not allow face-to-face communication. It is good technique for effective use of the internet, improves recruitment skills by enabling postings and job applications. Compare to e-Recruitment, Traditional Recruitment methods focuses on a small group of potential applicants and does not give the organization access to the many passive candidates (talent) required. Electronic Recruitment increase potential for qualitative selection, competitive advantages and other benefits. Electronic Recruitment saves time by quickly processing the redundancy of applicants, easier recruitment of qualified candidates, improves the image of the prospect, provides organizational information between the prospect and the applicant for vacancies, updates job data and there is an expansion of the geographical scope for applicants. The purpose of this literature review is to analyze the issues of defining e-Recruitment strategies. The literature review comprises peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, white papers and the topic of e-Recruitment strategies.

Entrepreneurial Marketing Paradigm-Why it is Important for Kosovar Entrepreneurs?

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Nora Sadiku Dushi, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Entrepreneurial marketing is a relatively new concept that has emerged at the intersection of the two very extensively researched fields such as marketing and entrepreneurship. It is considered as a new marketing paradigm that is suitable especially for small and medium-sized enterprises who due to their limited financial and human resources are unable to perform the traditional marketing principles. Having in mind that this research field has not yet sufficiently penetrated the Balkans, this paper will provide some insight into this relatively new concept that has gained the attention of many researchers from all over the world. This paper will explain what is entrepreneurial marketing as well as when, how and why this research field has emerged? Further, the paper will stress the need for entrepreneurial marketing, its characteristics as well as the main differences between entrepreneurial and traditional marketing. This study will also underline the importance of this new marketing paradigm for the success of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the end of the paper, the recommendations for the use of entrepreneurial marketing by SMEs as well as the proposal for future research directions in this field will be presented.

Factors Affecting Knowledge Management in Organizations

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Dugagjin Sokoli, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Andrej Koren, ISSBS International School for Social and Business Studies, Slovenia
Edmond Hajrizi, University of Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

It is a strategic process that organizations use to boost learning and performance. Mainly, companies use it to attain short and long-term ways to use knowledge to the entity. In this field, knowledge can either be explicit, implicit, or tacit. The framework asserts that knowledge management strategies are affected by whether a company tries to measure its information resources and the

Performance of its knowledge activities. The four dimensions of knowledge management, namely, knowledge acquisition, conversion, application, and protection have a definite link with the two aspects of organizational performance. It is important to use appropriate support systems to generate, code, and transfer the knowledge within the organization’s participants to ensure that it is put to its rightful use.

How Printing Industry Meets Technological and Financial Challenges

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Liudmila Guzikova, Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Printing and publishing industry is currently undergoing a period of transformation caused by powerful technological shifts, leading to a change in the business model of the industry. Instead of being a producing industry, printing is becoming a part of the service industry. The economic situation in the printing industry is difficult. The consequences of competition from digital technologies are a decrease in investment, profit and sales and an increase in operating costs. The changes could not but affect the structure of the industry, its financial performance, the activities of individual companies and their financial situation. Sustainability of the industry was in jeopardy, which requires analysis and development of measures to ensure the successful adaptation of printing companies to changing business conditions. The purpose of this research is to identify opportunities and threats for printing and publishing companies based on investigation organizational and technological trends in the industry and the financial performance of companies. Object of study is constituted by the printing and publishing companies of St. Petersburg. Methods of financial and economic analysis and statistical techniques are used. The conclusions and recommendations made as the result of study may be useful for the heads of particular companies and for the governmental bodies responsible for industrial policy.

Internal Allocation of Shared IT Infrastructures on Cost Driver Allocation Bases: A Case of a Typical Medium-Sized Austrian Financial Service Provider

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Andrea Schnabl, University of Vienna

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

IT has a high share of the total costs at information processing companies. Though not only minimal IT costs are relevant, but also effective use of IT from the long term business perspective. Decisions on IT investments are made based on information about costs and benefits commonly provided by controlling in-struments. To identify direct and indirect costs of IT services, an internal IT cost allocation (IT activity allocation or IT chargeback) is being used by the vast ma-jority of companies, especially in IT-related industries. The allocation of shared IT infrastructures and overhead costs to IT services, as well as of IT services to service recipients, is based on simplified allocation keys. Allocation keys are commonly built use-based, per revenue share or per employee. For example allo-cation per CPU or RAM for servers and per Gigabyte of disk space for central storage systems is commonly being used. Nowadays those rarely are relevant cost drivers, except for extreme increases in usage intensity, which raise jump-fixed costs to a higher level. As a consequence service recipients lack the possi-bility and incentive to control the real costs and to optimize the cost/benefit ratio. Furthermore allocated costs, especially for shared services, do not represent cor-rectly the real cost situation and product pricing and business cases based on those costs are not accurate. As a constraint information cost to gain data to build allocation keys have be reasonable. The question is, how to build allocation keys as accurate as possible to apportion ‘real’ IT costs with reasonable effort. The pa-per at hand describes the internal IT cost allocation and its allocation keys based on main actual cost drivers by means of a case study at a typical medium-sized Austrian financial service provider. This approach yields a more accurate alloca-tion of actual IT costs.

International Risk Analysis Based on The Portfolio Diversification: The Case of Prague Stock Exchange

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Florin Aliu, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Besnik Krasniqi, University of Prishtina
Emad Attia Mohamed Omran, Tomas Bata University in Zlin
Amir Zylfiu, University of Prishtina

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Stock exchanges are constantly prone to instability caused by asset bubbles. Risk level within the stock exchanges stands as the main concern for the financial in-vestors. Stock prices are influenced by the choices completed on the domestic and international environment. The study intends to measure the risk level of the Pra-gue Stock Exchange (PSE) from the internal risk perspectives. Portfolio diversi-fication formula has been implemented to obtain the risk level of the PSE from 2000 till 2017. Stock prices and the trade volume of the listed companies in the PSE were collected from the Thomson Reuters Eikon database. PSE has been considered as a portfolio based on the number of listed companies on the respec-tive years. The results confirm that financial investors in the PSE would be com-pensated for the risk exposure. Diversification risk and weighted average returns from 2000 till 2017 were almost moving identically. The results indicate that PSE was influenced from the last financial crises of 2008, confirmed from a decline in the weighted average returns and an increase in the diversification risk. The re-sults of the study stand in line with the theoretical paradigms that increase in the number of stocks that reduces the `diversification.

Organizational Loyalty and Employee Commitment: Case of Kosovo Telecom

Nazmi Zeqiri, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Every change is difficult for every organizational type of company. Globally, the telecom industry and Kosovo Telecom is subject to a tremendous change such as deregulation, technological advancement, new legislative requirements as well as organizational structuring. As the industry has witnessed unprecedented changes during the past years, the changing process was even more difficult in Kosovo Telecom, as Publicly Owned Company (POE). These changes often damaged employees’ commitment and loyalty created within the company for many years, hence making the employees not to share the common understanding of changing processes and orientation of internal structures.

This paper analyses the employee’s loyalty and commitment in Kosovo Telecom and seeks to understand the importance of employee’s loyalty and commitment in process of current and future organizational changes. In order to understand the changes of loyalty and commitment of Kosovo Telecom employees, over the years, this paper employs the similar demography, methodology and approach that is used by author in 2013 survey in main telecommunication companies in Kosovo. Derived results might allow Kosovo Telecom to understand whether recent organizational changes were in line with employee sentiment towards the organization, market, privatization and its activities on market and customer orientation. Moreover, conclusions and recommendations might be worthy for Kosovo Telecom in future moves. However, as the paper is seen only from employee’s perspective, further research is suggested from management and/or shareholder perspective too.

Promotion Mix and Beverage Manufacturing Enterprises: Consumer and Buyer Perspective

Rajan Arapi, University for Business and Technology
Gonxhe Beqiri, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Many manufacturing enterprises often use promotion mix and its components to advance their product-related strategy and objectives. Promotion mix represents one of the most direct and media related marketing component that connects enterprises with its consumers and buyers.

The enterprise – consumer connection from promotion mix is achieved through six main elements: advertising, direct marketing, interactive marketing, public relations and publicity, personal sales, and sales promotion.

The aim of this research paper is to analyse the impact that promotion mix has in consumers decision making of beverage manufacturing enterprises in Kosovo, based on each of its component individually or in combination. The research is based in primary data collection and analysis. The data were collected through questionnaires conducted with 380 consumers and buyers of various beverage manufacturing enterprises in Kosovo.

In order to achieve the purpose of this research, the data were analysed using T-test model and were interpreted with empirical methods applying specific statistical data analysis software.

The main results of this research show a hypothetical link between consumption and promotion. They indicate the importance of each element of promotion mix from consumer and buyer perspective of beverage manufacturing enterprises in Kosovo that were used in the sample. Buyers evaluated 71.9% as satisfactory the promotion mix that enterprises elect for their beverage products.

Remittances Support the Growth of Developing Countries

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Shpresim Vranovci, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Emigration plays a fundamental role in shaping the economic, social, and political developments in the Kosovo. In fact, in the last decades, no other phenomenon has influenced the country more than emigration. Even in the case of best social-economic scenarios for the near future, it is reasonable to assume that emigration will persist, as shown in examples of other European countries, where emigration, once started, lasted for decades or even centuries. A new strategic vision for the country's development must be defined, which must imply the shifting from the consumption growth model financed by remittances and building a model based on investments, exports, and innovations. This strategy must maximize the positive impact of remittances, on development, and limit their negative impact.

Social Aspects of Logistics - Social Logistics and Socially Oriented Business Logistics

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Vanya Banabakova, Vasil Levski National Military University
Canko Stefanov, Veliko Tarnovo University

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Logistics continuously expands its application areas. In modern conditions, there is a need to apply logistics in areas not related to its traditional applications such as military and business spheres, resulting in the identification of a third area with the name social logistics. For the purposes of this paper, a number of scientific approaches and methods have been applied, such as system approach, comparative analysis, critical analysis, synthesis and others. Social logistics aims to introduce a social (human) factor into the systems and to apply logistic principles and methods in solving the problems of society. Social logistics can be defined as a set of actions that ensure the effective functioning of social systems (such as a set of social phenomena, processes and subjects), applying the principles of logistics. Also important for social aspects of logistics is the development of socially oriented business logistics, which is based on the application of corporate social responsibility.

The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics and importance of social logistics and socially oriented logistics, to define the concept of social logistics, and to outline its areas of application in the public sphere.

Social Security - Public Expectations and Reality

Venelin Terziev, National Military University

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Contemporary problems and relations between economic and social sphere have different expressions in community life influenced by national peculiarities and global trends. The specific issue of labor market development is put in the focus of a number of strategic documents because through employment and unemployment it is directly connected to human well-being which in turn is the main target of social policies. Current study analyzes the problems of employment and unemployment, and vulnerable groups on the labor market in particular, considering the development of labor market in Bulgaria and corresponding policies rendering impact on it. Recommendations are provided regarding the instruments of social policies, their economic and social effectiveness, flexibility and security, paying special attention to the project approach application through social programming for sustainable employment.

The Effectiveness of Nudging Techniques to Customers in Kosovo: An Experimental Study

Nehat Dobratiqi, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Research has shown that customers, and people in general can be nudged, using different techniques. In this research work we are interested in looking at several nudging strategies in Kosovo on both food and non-food products. In this work, I present a framework of designing experiments, implementing and generating the expected results. The results from the field of Behavior Economics in general and nudge theory in particular, have been used in many scientific fields that use consumer theory teachings in their work, and the outcomes of this research should have large benefits to all those areas. Researchers have also pointed out that the results may depend on the diversity of population that is part of the experiment. To my knowledge, this is the first study to be conducted in Kosovo not only for food/non-food products, but in the field of Behavior Economics in general. Hence, the results are of great interest for many parties: the academic community, and private and public sector. I expect to show through experiment that the nudging techniques work in Kosovo, in accordance with the research done so far in this field.

The Fourth Industrial Revolution and International Economics

Iliyan Mateev, St. Cyril and St. Methodius University

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

At the beginning of the second decade of the XXI century, the German government developed a concept called Industrie 4.0 (Industry 4.0), which was first introduced in 2011 at the Hannover Messe. This same fair set up a working group of academic and university officials, managers and practitioners from the practice, headed by Siegfried Dais from "Robert Bosch GmbH " and Henning Kabermann from the German Academy of Science and Engineering - a former senior executive leader in Europe's largest software provider - "SAP AG ". After Germany similar concepts developed and a number of countries from East and Southeast Asia: Japan came up with the Model "Society 5.0", Singapore with the concept "Smart Society", and Thailand with the idea "Thailand 4.0". What is emphasized by many describing the new technological way of manufacturing is that it needs a new type of human factor. A human factor, in which creative and innovative potential, self-management is essential. On 48th annual World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, held in January 2018, the aforementioned post-industrial paradigm officially was named "The Fourth Industrial Revolution". As stated at the Forum in Davos, it will change everything around us and even us. It is clear that this revolution is not only unalterable, but it will undoubtedly change the future prospects of countries and peoples, the balance of power globally and the world map. "The Fourth Industrial Revolution" is distinguished by a fusion of technology, which "clouds the lines between the physical, digital and biological spheres".

The Impact of Effective Management on Economic Growth

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Ylber Limani, University for Business and Technology
Florentina Musliu, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Blerina Hoxha, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Effective management implies truthful and satisfactory performance of management activities. A high performing productive management typically perform activities effectively and efficiently. Accordingly, companies and countries can be economically viable when the available human, physical, and financial resources are effectively and efficiently managed to ensure the economic growth and well-being. Growth is most powerful organisational device to compete and to sustain by creating profits and by providing prosperity. Nevertheless, the essential management principles alone, could not provide sufficient support to achieve and sustain the ultimate goal of growth and affluence. Therefore, deep focusing on management effectiveness is needed to achieve higher organisational performance, and thereby better economic growth. Accordingly, this paper analyses the factors triggering the management effectiveness within organisational structure, and outlines the role of effective management on economic growth. The study is focused on several important factors that contribute to building an effective management climate, such as: leadership, motivation, knowledge, and skills.

The impact of globalization on vocational education and its challenge to schools

Ivica Opacak, High School Matija Antun Reljković
Agon Halabaku, University for Business and Technology
Sinisa Bilic, International University of Brcko district

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

The paper presents an analysis of the situation in the field of vocational education, considering the factors that influence its development, with special attention to the necessary adaptation of schools to new changes, especially demographic, but also in the economy, the labor market, public policies, financing and legal regulation. The case study analyzes the challenges of school development opportunities, management's response to change, the use of all available resources, networking schools vertically and horizontally, that is, school collaboration with the labor market, local community, ministry, entrepreneurs and other educational institutions to prepare students for the world work, lifelong education, lifelong learning and retraining. The school's responsive response to opening up the market and adapting the transition economy to the new situation, especially the opening up of the European labor market, is a real opportunity for development opportunities to introduce new projects in response to the needs of the regional labor market, changes in vocational education, active involvement of all employees in the learning process, connecting the necessary fields of education, procurement of equipment and pedagogicalmaterial, introduction of new technologies, adaptation of existing and construction of new premises and other.

The Impact of Organizational Changes on Human Capital Performance and Motivation

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Kaltrina Bunjaku Pasuli, University for Business and Technology
Leonita Braha Vokshi, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

In the recent years telecommunication industry in Kosovo has experienced a great development. To be more competitive organization must have a competitive advantage to be able to serve customers more effectively and efficiently than other competitors. Change is very important in any organization because it helps them compete with other organizations and leads them to realize their goals.The main aim of this paper is to assess the impact of organizational change on employee’s motivation and performance. The research is executed with description research based on quantitative and qualitative methods based on statistical analysis, correlation and OLS regression. The results of this paper shows that numerous organizational changes have a significant impact on motivation and performance of employees, more precisely organizational change has negative impact in employees motivation and frequency of organizational change has negative impact on employees performance.

Types of Organization of Business Organizations and Their Impact on Business Success

Mentor Shaqiri, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Orhan Ceku, Pjeter Budi College

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Businesses need to register with the Kosovo Business Registration Agency to start their economic activity. This registration must be made in accordance with the legal provisions in the Republic of Kosovo, but also in accordance with the economic requirements and interests of that economic entity. In this paper we will analyze the forms of organization of business organizations according to the applicable law and the impact of the form of organization on business success. Knowing that each form of organization has its own advantages and disadvantages, through the data obtained from the questionnaire, it will be seen which of these reasons have most influenced the chosen form of business registration. In the end, the owners' knowledge about the forms of business organization and the impact of this selection on business decision making and business success will also be analyzed.

Use of the Function Derivative to Minimize the Cost

Faton Kabashi, University for Business and Technology
Azir Jusufi, University for Business and Technology
Hizer Leka, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

A common problem in mathematics – as well as in many real world context is that as optimization problem (maximization or minimization) some quantity that can be expressed as a function. The aim of this paper is to attempt to determine the mathematical function for the lowest possible cost of a company, which makes the distribution of a cable network for a particular route. The assignment of such mathematical functions will be done by applying the function derivative and interpreted with the assistance of figures.

3:15 PM

Cost analysis on Cost of Consumers in Terms of Small markets. (Case study, Vlora)

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Elmira Kushta, University Ismail Qemali Vlora
Fatmir Memaj, University of Tirana

Pristina, Kosovo

3:15 PM - 3:30 PM

This article deals with the observed changes in consumer spending in a region of Albania following the fall in market sales prices. The paper focuses on the statistical study of a local consumer system. In the meantime, we are striving for greater recognition. Respectively in a more generalized and mathematical perspective, the generalized customer or consumer is the user and consumer as the behavioral agent. The purpose of the paper is to identify the best or most appropriate model for the behavioral profile according to the profile determined by the inductive analysis of the variables themselves. For this reason, part of the purpose of the paper is to construct the behavioral profile ie what are the most characteristic variables and the factor group profile. In the region where the study was conducted, it has been found that the price reductions drive costs, which in turn shows that the consumer behaves as a minimalist buyer, in response to high prices rather than budgetary constraints.

This supports the view that consumers in this region are primarily rational consumersç It was then found that the most pronounced effect relates to average consumer spending suggesting marketing activity referring to this category of consumers.

Optimization of Economic Functions with two Variables

Azir Jusufi, University for Business and Technology
Bukurie Imeri Jusufi, University for Business and Technology
Flamure Sadiku, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Faton Kabashi, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

3:15 PM - 3:30 PM

In addition to the mathematical notions for assigning stationary points with the help of the first partial derivatives of the two-variable function, we will classify these stationary points with the help of the second partial derivatives of the two-variable function, when the function f (x , y) reaches the maximum and when it reaches the minimum. The above notions will be applied to the profit optimization of any enterprise that produces two goods. We will also optimize an enterprise that sells some kind of product in different markets with price discrimination.

Statistical Analysis with Latent Variables. Case Study (University Libraries)

Miftar Ramosaco, University Ismail Qemali
Astrit Denaj, University Ismail Qemali

Pristina, Kosovo

3:15 PM - 3:30 PM

This paper aims to provide a satisfactory basis, both theoretically and methodologically, for a more accurate understanding and measurement of the phenomenon.This basis could serve as the beginning of a more organized and advanced research work of scholars of different disciplines.The study is based on the application of some of the most appropriate statistical methods for cross-sectional data, collected through some questionnaires, to students at Ismail Qemali University of VloraThe results of the study showed that the student community under study had a heterogeneous structure Considering the heterogeneous structure of the students helped to better understand the nature and epidemiology of the phenomenon The inclusion of some variables at the individual level contributed to the improvement and clarification of this heterogeneous latent structure, which did not occur with the inclusion of a variable at the contextual level (community). This study was attended by approximately 200 students including all study cycles. The study was conducted in the period March 2019 at the Ismail Qemali University of Vlora.

3:30 PM

Benefits from Imlementation of ABC Methods in Microbusinesses in Republic of North Macedonia

Bukurie Imeri Jusufi, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

The paper deals with exploring the possibilities of applying ABC method as the most applied method of managerial and cost accounting in contemporary economies, which enables planning of financial inputs, control of expenses and profit for management at all levels. ABC activity-based costing also applies to the financial and service sectors, and is focused on individual activities such as product design, machinery configuration, material allocation, distribution and customer care client, as the basic cost objects.

In this paper through the method of analysis, induction and deduction we will try to explain the benefits that micro businesses will have from applying the ABC method in enhancing their performance. The reasons why such research should be done are the following: managerial and cost accounting is a relatively new learning discipline, strategic management accounting techniques are also not well researched and the implementation of strategic managerial accounting techniques is not relevant to business entities in the Republic of North Macedonia.

Control Activity and Monitoring as COSO Framework Elements And Their Impact on the Performance of Entity: Case Study Republic of Kosovo

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Gresa Mjaku, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

This paper aims to investigate the impact of two elements of the COSO framework such as Control activity and Monitoring on the performance of Institutions of the Republic of Kosovo. Therefore, public institutions and audit agencies in our country need to work more than ever before to promote law enforcement, fight against corruption, honesty, the efficient use of public funds and the increase of government competencies and responsibilities in order to increase the performance of the entity. We employ primary data due to lack of data by secondary data from other relevant institutions. The data set includes a sample of 400 internal auditors, covering the entire auditory region in the Republic of Kosovo. An IV-GMM model is implemented to measure the impact of two determinants in the public sector together with their metering instruments. Since the reliability of the data is proven, we think that this research has presented the current state of the institutions of the Republic of Kosovo and determining the main factors of the progress of this system. The results show that the control activity, including Comprehensive control activity, Equality in control activities and Duration of control have 56% impact on entity performance. Moreover, the results show that Monitoring as a 5th element of the COSO framework, including the selfassessment questionnaire and verification in the field as measurement instruments of monitoring, in the case of the Republic of Kosovo has an impact 41 % in performance enhancement in public entities.

Economic Effects in Romania within Integration in European Union

Amir Imeri, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Xhevat Bejta, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

The study is going to analyze the economic development of Romania before and after membership in European Union. We will discuss whether economic cooperation between Romania and European Union members increased or decreased after European Union membership. This article provides a comprehensive and contemporary comparative analysis of the economic performance, the economic structure and the trade relations between Romania and European Union countries, allowing us to detect basic trends and developments. We will compare the economic performance of Romania and other European Union members, looking at aggregate figures from integration in European Union such as foreign trade, Foreign Direct Investment, Gross Domestic Product and its structure, level of structural unemployment and employment, inflation and level of income.

Economy and Diseconomy of Scale in Microeconomy Case study: Procredit Bank

Mirjeta Domniku, University for Business and Technology
Blert Podvorica, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

The purpose of the research is to present the challenges and benefits of alternatives in the banking system in Kosovo. The research aims to show how vital investment selection is for developing a business where this development should address the business in economies of scale rather than increasing costs. The research methods used to conduct the research are secondary methods with quantitative data, because we have considered the high reliability of the data from the banking sector. A total of 574 data were collected from 24 different variables over 24 time periods, descriptive statistical methods, correlation and regression were used to present the results. The research explains the types and sources of economics of scale, then reviews literature from 66 different publications on the topic. The research results are the verification of 7 scientific hypotheses, they are H1- Financial institutions focus on profit regardless of deposit sensitivity. H2- Procredit Bank as a German bank is characterized by the diseconomy of scale. H3- Commercial banks have no positive relationship between credit growth and return on equity. H4- Commercial banks increase the amount of risk-free investments by increasing deposits. H5- Increased equity by commercial banks increases the amount of risk-free investments. H6- Economies of scale are not the only way to reduce the share of fixed costs in profit margins. H7- With increasing time deposits from customers, net income increases, despite the fact that the bank pays more interest to customers.

Effect of Leadership Evaluation by Employees in an Enterprise

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Bardha Mulhaxha

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

CEOs are those who have the task of leading the company, building good relationships with others and achieving the objectives. All of this is achieved through human resources, the most basic resource of the company, which by working in their fields, make it able to meet the company's objectives and why not maximize profit. To date, in various companies, we have often encountered CEOs or managers who evaluate employees' performance from time to time, but rarely or at least we did not encounter employees who in their view evaluated the performance of their chiefs. This is because employees did not have the courage and support to raise any issues for their bosses or even less to evaluate their performance. By this research we did a partial evaluation of the CEOs by employees in an enterprise. It is therefore envisaged to interview about 20 employees of different levels and of different companies regarding the performance of their bosses. The extracted data were analyzed through the software application for statistical analysis SPSS (IBM Analytics).

Through the results, we have understood more about employees' perceptions about the performance of their CEOs and how informed CEOs are about what's happening in the company.

External Audit

Blerina Jashari, University for Business and Technology
Bukurie Imeri Jusufi, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Principal and agent problems resulting from asymmetric information, the needs of creditors, investors, trusted regulators, managers, financial scandals, frauds, and others have made the demand for audits and auditors with high integrity to increase we keep going over the last few decades. There are many frequently asked questions about why auditing is needed, the simple answer would be because it is required by law. External audit make it possible and reasonable to first understand and clarify the general notion of auditing and the general auditing standards to be adhered to, while not neglecting the concepts and stages through which the audit goes through, where all chapters are interconnected in order to fully understand the role of external audit in the economy. In Kosovo, given that it is a developing country, the importance of external auditing also plays an impoertant role in economic development. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relevance of audit companies, to show evidence that the audit process is key factor in ensuring clarity and reliability in company financial statements where the first thing needed is that the market should recognize the importance of the value of the audit. The following chapters will provide a clear overview of the level of importance of external audit. There will also be a literature review of the methodology that is planned to be used so that the results in the following chapters are clear and understandable.

Hadamard's Coding Matrix and Some Decoding Methods

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Hizer Leka, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Azir Jusufi, University for Business and Technology
Faton Kabashi, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

In this paper, we will show a way to form Hadamard's code order n=2^p (where p is a positive integer) with the help of Rademacher functions, through which matrix elements are generated whose binary numbers {0,1} , while its columns are Hadamard's encodings and are called Hadamard's coding matrix. Two illustrative examples will be taken to illustrate this way of forming the coding matrix. Then, in a graphical manner and by means of Hadamard's form codes, the message sequence encoding as the order coding matrix will be shown. It will also give Hadamard two methods of decoding messages, which are based on the so-called Haming distance. Haming's distance between two vectors u and v was denoted by d(u,v) and represents the number of places in which they differ. In the end, three conclusions will be given, where a comparison will be made of encoding and decoding messages through Haming's coding matrices and distances.

Impact of Risk Management on the Performance of Kosovo Pension Fund Assets

Shkendije (Demalijaj) Ukaj, Tax Administration of Kosovo

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

This paper aims to provide an overview of risk management and risk measurement of Kosovo Pension Fund financial assets invested in various securities in international companies abroad. The performance measurement of Pension Fund financial assets in this paper, will be achieved by performing a risk analysis and assessment as well as analyzing the rates of return on Pension Fund assets through some known valuation methods. A comparative analysis will also, be conducted to analyze the experience of some developed and developing countries regarding the form of financing system and risk management of pension funds in their respective countries. By doing this paper, however, it aims to make a modest contribution to argue the situation regarding the management and performance of return on invested Pension Assets and to determine where improvements should be make in the future.

Innovation in Transport and Logistics Through the Use

Dashmis Istrefi, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

This research is concerned with the methodology of reducing shipping costs for the transport and logistics industry with particular emphasis on distribution services. Most operations for these services depend on vehicles, so keeping the cost of transport to a minimum will increase the profit margin. Each company has different requirements from customers for distribution of goods and their vehicles have different capacities available. The problem with this research is that in each of the routes, a vehicle starts at the warehouse with a certain amount of packages for distribution, then visits a subset of customers in order to deliver the packages.

Regardless of the time during a shift, a vehicle must always meet the capacity limitations of the vehicle. The Logistics system in this case study is used as an order collection and optimal vehicle delivery technique that has been further refined to suit customer requirements. The cost of transport is calculated for corresponding distances to compare the effect we get from this system.

Kosovo's Financial Reporting System and Donor Support in its Development

Nazmi Pllana, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Sakip Imeri, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Selman Berisha, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

In all countries of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, and especially in the Balkans, during the transition from the socialist to the capitalist system, financial and technical assistance and support from foreign donors was crucial. This is especially evident in Kosovo, where many changes have taken place within a relatively short period of 15 years. With the help of donors such as the World Bank, USAID and the EU, the necessary legal and institutional infrastructure for financial reporting was created. This assistance resulted in the creation of the legal infrastructure as the basis for the establishment of the financial reporting system. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate and demonstrate the impact of donor assistance on developing and enhancing the quality of financial reporting in Kosovo

Modeling the Estimated Fundamental Value of the Kosovo Commercial Banks

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Florin Aliu, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Fisnik Aliu, University of Prishtina
Arton Nuhiu, University of Prishtina
Lenka Dokoupilova, Tomas Bata University in Zlin

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Valuation is an important component of the bank appraisal since it determines the financial position of the common stocks. The work identifies the deviation of the intrinsic value from the shareholders book value, not the market price of the Kosovo commercial banks. The study use accounting items composed from the audited financial statements of the 10 selected banks operating in the Kosovo banking industry. The methodology stands on the discounted cash flow model adjusted for the bank specific characteristics. The absence of the Kosovo Stock Market generated certain limitations during the valuation process where the cost of equity and beta coefficients were obtained from Damodaran Database. Results of the work show huge deviation between book value of the banks and their estimated intrinsic value.

Organizational Culture of Higher Education in Kosovo and North Macedonia

Leonita Braha, University for Business and Technology
Kaltrina Bunjaku Pasuli, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Organizational culture is one of the key factors determining the success of an Institution. In the context of defining the notion of "organizational culture" different efforts have been made from different scholars. The Anthropologist Edward B. Taylor 148 years ago offered a broad definition, stating that culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. For a healthy society we must have a wellbeing knowledge temple. Knowledge temple is University, and the university is a complex social organization with a diversified culture.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare organizational culture of higher education in Kosovo and North Macedonia based on the six dimensions of Geert Hofstede’s and ethnographic research on the impact of organizational culture on effective management. Gert Hofstede’s dimensions or variables indicate the culture of the organization, more precisely measures the effectiveness of the organization, the philosophy of management, focus, integration, control and customer orientation. The results show that six organizational culture variables for higher education in Kosovo and North Macedonia needs improvement since from six dimensions, In Kosovo four dimensions accelerate the strategy of organization while two others dimensions makes difficulty, in North Macedonia three dimensions accelerate and three others dimensions makes difficulty. Expressed as a percentage in Kosovo 67 percent of the outputs from the dimensions simplify the organization's strategy and 33 percent of them make the organization's strategy more difficult while in North Macedonia percentage is fifty percent with fifty percent.

Relationship Between Financial Literacy and Entrepreneurial Success in Kosovo

Bejtush Ademi, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

This paper aims to assess the relationship between financial literacy among entrepreneurs and their entrepreneurial success in Kosovo. Entrepreneurs are continuously involved in decision-making regarding venture financing, allocation and utilization of financial resources, analysis of creditors and debtors, cash management, book-keeping practices and business risk assessment to run their own businesses. Financial literacy contributes to the profile of the entrepreneur. In fact, studies have shown that there is a direct causal link between financial literacy levels and entrepreneurial performance. In this paper, financial literacy is defined in the context of entrepreneurs of small and medium businesses. A financially literate entrepreneur defines one that demonstrates knowledge in assessing financing and financial management options throughout the business development stages; capacity to generate, read, and understand financial statements; knowledge of financial products; knowledge of legal and regulatory framework. On the other hand, entrepreneurial performance is indicated through sales growth, profitability, timely loan repayments, risk management, return on assets, and liquidity. This study focuses in Kosovo and a survey questionnaire will be distributed to entrepreneurs running SMEs in Kosovo.

Relationships between Organizational Change and Employee Stress

Osman Sejfijaj, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Ermira Shehu, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Fatmir Memaj, University of Tirana

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Changes in the business environment and in the enterprise are one of the most common reasons for stress at work, one of the major risk factors for worker safety and health. Resistance is at a lower level if employees are motivated and prepared for change.

This paper focuses on the stress factors that employees must go through in situations where change management is not done through proper leadership and active employee participation in managing this process. The research suggests reducing the resistance of employees within the organization, provided that the changes are the result of environmental research, advance planning, readjustment, adaptation to technological change and by applying and using certain characteristics of enterprise leadership. Any intervention made to bring about change consists in using the most appropriate instruments which must be consistent with the features of the enterprise. Change in one or more organizational factors such as; structure, culture, leadership, job demands, or physical conditions push employees to resist change and cause stress. Stress causes absenteeism, high worker mobility, conflicts at work, in the family, work overload that results in reduced productivity, low morale and job dissatisfaction. The paper attempts to explain the impact of successful implementation of change, the factors that assist the process, employee feedback and stress factors, and measures of implementation and overcoming of stressors. The summarized results allow us to perform appropriate, specific oriented actions to achieve commitment to work and prevent stress.

Research Management in the Higher Education Sector in Algeria

Zine Barka, University of Tlemcen
Fatima Zohra Kiari, University of Mascara

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Scientific research is seen as an essential part of the development and growth in all the dimensions, economic, social and technological.

Based on this theoretical assumption and widely documented, soon after gaining Independence in 1962, Algeria has engaged actively in a policy to promote higher education and scientific research and made them one of the priorities of its development policy. And precisely, since the end of the 1970s considerable financial efforts have been made to open the University to its environment by enrolling a growing number of students. The aim behind such a policy was to provide the formation of human resources qualified in different fields in order to implement the development policy. But it seems that after a fifty-seven years of independence, some achievements are showing weaknesses in terms of training and skills capable of mastering the new technologies.

The present work highlights the track followed by analyzing the structure of the research units and centers set up, the planning of the scientific research and its funding. The methodology used to conduct this work is based on the analysis of the budgetary data in the sector as well as working papers and papers produced on the topic. We will also try to document these questions: Are the achievements adequate with the funds allocated into to the sector? What is holding back the potential of the researchers? And finally, what are the difficulties and challenges of scientific research in Algeria?

The work will be structured in three phases as follows:

I- The process of building national research system. Investments and achievements.

II- The organization and programming of the national system of scientific research.

III- The issues of the management of scientific research and the results in terms of research training, and scientific production. The main challenges facing research in Algeria.

Search Engine Optimization Effect on Online Purchase Decision

Jonida Xhemaili, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Search engines have triggered a change of how consumers search information and make purchases. Consumers constantly use social networks to look for products, compare prices and check other specifics. Internet technology has grown to an extent that it provides the opportunity to get inoformation from anywhere and anytime. Search engines continue to integrate to our daily activities, and their importance stands on the fact that individuals use these engines to search information about a company or product. This paper focuses on understanding the effect that search engine optimization has on online purchase decision and it explains how search engines support the behaviour of customers. This research has been conducted by collecting primary data. Statistical analysis, with the use of SPSS tools, are used to better understand the relationship between SEO and online purchase decision.

The Effect of Digital Revolution, and ERP Software Usage in Banking Sector

Hasan Metin
Aurora Mustafa, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

This research aims at assessing the effect that the digital revolution has in general, while the main focus is on the banking sector of Kosovo. The research describes the impact of digital technology such as ERP software, on the overall performance, on the quality of services provided, and on achieving enterprise strategic objectives of banking. Extraordinary advances in digital technology have transformed the way that banks function. High opportunities exist for the use of digital era infrastructure, to create local and global opportunities. High competition and various challenges in the banking sector are pushing banks to adopt new digital models, which represent unique resources and added value to them. The research model involves a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, and is realized by employee survey in banking sector and their clients. The research results provide a good mix between the theoretical part and the practical one in the effect of the digitization, and in particular the ERP software in the banking sector.

The Effectiveness of Active Labour Market Policies in Reducing Unemployment in Kosovo

Albulena Jahja, University for Business and Technology
Nick Addnett, Staffordshire University
Artane Rizvanolli, Staffordshire University

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

This paper investigates the effectiveness of Active Labour Market Policies (ALMP) in Kosovo’s labour market. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of three active measures: On the Job Training (OJT), Internship Scheme (IS) and Institution and Enterprise Training (IET). The estimation techniques used for this empirical investigation are Propensity Score Matching (PSM) and Inverse Probability Weighting – Regression Adjustment (IPWRA). Since there is a range of active programmes in which an individual can participate, the choice of participation should be extended from ‘participation vs. non-participation’ into a multiple choice model (Lechner, 2001). The approach used in this analysis provides information on whether participants of one programme would have performed better if they had participated in another programme. The second estimation technique, IPWRA, allows extending from the ‘participant vs. non-participant’ analysis of PSM to a multivalued treatment assignment model while utilising an appropriate set of covariates which are available for both the treated and control groups. Therefore this paper investigates whether being a participant in one of the three active measures improves the likelihood of gaining employment in general and being engaged in the formal labour market in particular compared to being a non-participant and also compared to the other two programmes.

Understanding Impact of Professional Training on Work Performance

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besnik skenderi, University for Business and Technology
Diamanta Skenderi, Tax Administration of Kosovo

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Because of fast changes in technology, work processes and legislation there is a need for faster preparation of work labor, however formal education is failing to prepare people within required time and skills that are required by labor market. This paper is analyzing training needs for businesses and available training that are offered by public and private institutions. For this paper, case of TAK, Kosovo Telecom and UBT was analyzed and findings are compared with training's that vendors are offering within UK and USA. In addition also findings from national Accreditation Agency where discussed, regarding professional schools.

Vat Reduction in 8% and Impact on Household Budget

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Mustafe Hasani, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Vahide Hasani, Economic High School – Ferizaj

Pristina, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Increased care, implementation, and greater importance in creating fiscal policies that impact in the economy and family consumption began after the declaration of Independence in 2008, when the first tax reforms were made. But the fiscal reforms called the "Fiscal Package 1" which started its enforcement by the end of 2015, especially the VAT reduced rate for household consumption from 16% to 8% had the main effect on the consumer basket and the family budget, which is also the main approach of this paper. Based on the analysis of many indicators, statistical data and questionnaire we have verified how much was impact in the household budget by the decrease of VAT rate. We will give an overview on the influence of this reform on the household consumption basket by focusing mainly on essential products for living. By comparing the experiences of the countries in the region and the survey with the respondents we will be able to see how these changes were expected by the citizens, how do they evaluate the impact on their family budget, as well as possible suggestions for other positive ways that can contribute in saving the family budget. Hypothesis from the comparison of the results of the findings and the answers from the survey was verified that family consumption basket with VAT reduction has lower cost especially for public services and saving the family budget. While the implication on the general budget of the state from reduced VAT rate is very small, compared to the benefits of low-income households.

5:15 PM

Alternative Energy Generation and its Economic Impact on Developing Countries: A Case Study of Albania, Kosovo, Montenegro, and Northern Macedonia

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Ruzhdi Matoshi, University for Business and Technology
Isa Mulaj, Institute for Economic Policy Research and Analyses Prishtine, Kosovo

Pristina, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:45 PM

Energy as a comprehensive source of economic development has undergone transformation and is evolving into alternatives. Due to the concerns about pollution, energy generation is constantly seeking an alternative that is friendly to the environment, or at least with substantial lower harmful effects. This effort involves costs of investment, especially in developing countries. Investment in alternative, cost efficient and friendly environment energy is no longer the sole isolated objective of a country, thus it may involve several countries, especially neighboring ones to coordinate their efforts. This paper looks into the state and prospects of alternative energy in four small developing countries in the Balkans: Albania, Kosovo, Montenegro, and Northern Macedonia by analyzing their current producers, shortage and/or surplus of energy, sources, environmental costs, and the impact on their national economies. All this in a relatively small area of over 72 000 km2 and 7.4 million inhabitants of four countries. A particular emphasis will be placed on comparative analysis of hydro-power and solar energy.

Any Effects of Work Life Balance and Employee Benefits on Employee Engagement?

Perwaiz B. Ismaili, Metropolitan State University

Pristina, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:45 PM

Several studies have contributed in studying the relationships between the work-life balance, employee benefits and employee-organization engagement using classical analyses. While such studies have contributed to the general understanding of the holistic concepts, however, the detail latent discernment are limited using classical analyses. To further contribute to the advances of business studies, in this paper, using the corporate data of off-shore branches, a cutting-edge Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used to discern the latent patterns of relationships between these elements. The overall correlation was weak using the classical analyses however, when provided qualitative data from the off-shore branch were analyzed using an exploratory model of the categorical time series ANN tool, called Knowledge Diagraph Contribution (KDC), the effects of work-life balance were strong. In general, fine-grained KDC analyses indicated that work-life balance and employees benefits does have an effect on corporate engagement. The discerned nuanced patterns of such employee-corporate engagements will be presented at the conference.

Board of Directors' Quality on Earnings Management: Evidence from Insurance Industry in Kosovo

Fidane Spahija Gjikolli, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:45 PM

The board of directors represents a group of individuals who are elected as, representatives of the stockholders to establish corporate management related policies and make decisions on major companies’ issues. This study examined the board characteristics have any impact on earnings management on the insurance industry in Kosovo. The board of directors can be characterized by quality properties. Quality dimensions of the board identified in prior studies as important contingencies of earnings management include board size, board independence, frequency of meetings, financial expertise, board rotation). Collectively, the evidence in this study signifies that board of directors’ quality are important mechanism for deterring earnings management.

Consumer Protection and Care in Kosovo

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Hamëz Rama, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:45 PM

Based on the principle, a state is made up of social communities, respectively society in general, while the consumption structure is made up of the individual, the family, the social communities, companies and institutions, but in a word they are all consumers. Kosovo after the war has accepted the market economy system, ie the law of value, competition, the supply and demand.

In economic systems dominated by a market economy, but also in Kosovo, consumer protection refers to infrastructure and legal provisions sponsored by the Government of the Republic of Kosovo and approved by the Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo, designed for consumer protection and harmonized with the highest EU standards, as Kosovo aspires to EU membership, and in the other form consumer protection is product liability. Based on the statistics, Kosovo is known more as a state of consumption than a state of production, while protecting and caring for the consumer we must introduce our culture and mindset, good or not good, we must present as high value in material property, using marketing for encouragement and motivating consumers to consume more than enough.

Consumerism in practice has more definitions, while in business and economy in general even in Kosovo it means, to protect consumer rights and safety, initially, consumer health protection and compliance principles of market competitiveness, offering quality products with acceptable offer, and at all safety products. Consumer protection is based on consumer rights, or, to the idea that consumers have a right to inherently for basic health and safety.

Part of this context are: Institutions of the Republic of Kosovo: MAFRD, MTI, VFA, Kosovo Customs, KTA, and other relevant executive agencies, which have legal and constitutional obligations to protect and care for the consumer.

Effectiveness Increase in Kosovo’s Mines Through the Digitalization Process. Case study – Mine and Industry of Magnesite "Golesh”

Hasan Metin, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Hyrije Aliu Dragaqina, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Pristina, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:45 PM

This study aims to investigate the impact of digitalization process for mining sector that would enhance their effectiveness, as well as gives some guidelines on digitization for mining companies in Kosovo which seek to operate steadily as other mining companies around the globe Mines and their industries in Kosovo are in a passive state, with outdated and destroyed technology by War in Kosovo. Data generated presents that the Mines of Kosovo do not function effectively and efficacy, knowing that they are the country's biggest asset. Investment in digitalization process of mines and their industries has the potential to influence positively for their recovery, affecting the growth of production, sales and financial revenues, this will give mines of Kosovo opportunities to have a worldwide competitive advantage. Mines as the essential sector for the economy of the country, with their functionalization, will have a sustainable economic and social development. Specifically, investing in the digitization of mines and their industries can improve performance in the socio-economic arena and open up sustainable jobs for the country's long-term development.

Globalization of Banking Business and Risk Management

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Arbiana Govori, University for Business and Technology
Qemajl Sejdija

Pristina, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:45 PM

Risk management is a vital component of internal control and refers to the process of identifying and analyzing risks in achieving the organization's objectives and in defining a suitable risk mitigation response. This means:

✓Identification of the risk

✓Risk Assessment and Classification

✓ Assessing the organization's appetite for risk

✓ Prepare a Risk Response

Also, risk management should be reviewed and reported in order to monitor whether a risk profile is changing or not, to obtain guarantees that risk management is effective and to identify further action that is needed.

Typical problems related to risk management that are encountered are:

➢ Senior managers are not aware of the responsibility they have for implementing it and / or do not seem to want to implement it.

➢ Mid-level managers are afraid to apply risk management as they may not want to accept the risks / weaknesses in their current work arrangements.v

➢ Where risk is managed, it is often implemented at the end of the internal control process, rather than at the beginning.v

As risk management refers to the process of identifying and analyzing risks to the achievement of objectives, this management requires financial institutions to set their business objectives and then carry out a risk analysis to see if these objectives are possible realized. Risk management can be seen as a bridge between the control environment and the control of activities, since it is precisely on the basis of the risk analysis that internal controls need to be set up. If the risk analysis is done after the internal controls have been set up, then it is unlikely that these controls will be the appropriate ones to cope with the risks.

Horse as a Measurement of Economic Situation in the Albanian Tradition in The First Half of XX Century

Nexhat Cocaj, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Pristina, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:45 PM

Agricultural and livestock activity in almost 75% of the population throughout the Albanian area has been the main activity of households. But it is very striking the way how the economic status of a family was determined until the first half of the twentieth century, namely how households were ranked by economic status, was measured. Although the real estate of a family has not always been known, because the change of systems has made the wealth of a family not known to the public or to the environment in which the family lived. One of the measures of the economic status of a family, in our tradition, has been the number of horses in a household. But when counting the number of horses, one must keep in mind their classification such as saddle horses, working horses, mules and donkeys.

In this way, by determining the economic situation in many Albanian settings, marital relations have developed. So in many settings according to ethnographic memories, a middle-class family has refused to marry their daughter to a family that has not had a saddle horse, because it is estimated that that family that couldn't afford a saddle horse is not a wealthy family and their daughter cannot live well. While the girl's family was proud to have made a marriage alliance with a wealthy family if that family had more than two saddle horses, more than five working horses and 10 - 20 mortar horses. A poor family, according to ethnographic criteria for determining the economic situation, is considered the family, which had only a mule or a donkey at home.

Therefore, in supporting the data collected in the field through ethnological research methods, in this paper I will attempt, through the horse, in this paper to provide examples of determining the economic situation of Albanian families until the first half of the twentieth century in all Albanian space. Because the family economy, however primitive it was, it has kept Albanian families afloat and has evolved to this stage, where we are today and where we expect to arrive tomorrow.

Logical Framework Approach and Way to Conceptualize Project Proposals

Hasan Metin, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Dea Mustafa, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Pristina, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:45 PM

In order to have successful projects, companies are using different project management methodologies. One of the standard and proved logical framework methodologies is PRINCE2 (Project In Controlled Environments) which is de facto standard for project management in UK. Aim of this research is to prove that with implementation of the LFA, projects will have more probability to succeed; failure of the pro-jects will be identified in early stages of the project and products will be delivered with agreed time, quality and cost.

Literature used for this research is PMI, OGC, APM and academic journals. Findings from these research show that there is no evidence of proper risk analyze, decisions during project life cycle are ad hock and that there is not any standard in place for project management. Reasons for project failure are very similar with reasons which are iden-tified by PMI.

Recommendations which are coming from this research are support-ing and justifying implementation of standardized project management methodology and recommended project management methodology.

From this research are identified some questions, which are challeng-ing bodies of knowledge and in a same time are offering base for fur-ther researchers.

In time of globalization and aggressive competition in order to sur-vive many businesses are becoming project oriented businesses. Com-panies are investing a lot in staff which is involved in project manage-ment, despite this fact companies are still facing with big number of failed projects. Most of the projects are failing because their initial pro-ject implementation processes are not clearly defined, risks are not ana-lyzed, project control is missing and because of the lack of validity of the business case. Although there is a set of standards and techniques for project management, in the current era of globalization and estab-lishment of different strategic alliance it seem more appropriate to im-plement standardized logical frameworks.

Simple Interest as a Special Case of Compound Interest

Ramadan Limani, University for Business and Technology

Pristina, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:45 PM

In this paper it is shown that the simple interest can be considered as a special case of that compound one, and thus, we are able to calculate the effective interest rate (EIR) for simple interest deposits. Some examples of calculating the balance for simple interest deposits by using the formula for the balance of the compound interest and their corresponding effective interest rates are shown. A mathematical formula for calculation of the effective interest rate for simple interest deposits is given. Instructions of using the financial consultant CASIO FC -100V for accurate calculations, are also shown.

Strategic Management and Entrepreneurship in the Republic of Kosovo

Sejdi Xhemaili, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Pristina, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:45 PM

In this paper the area and objectives of strategic management and entrepreneurship will be examined, i.e. what it is concerned with and which goals it aims to achieve. As an example studies involving competitive advantage when applying the strategic management and entrepreneurship will be specified. The area of behaviour in the strategic management and entrepreneurship and its focus will be taken into account as well as what opportunities are given for the further development of small and medium companies. An answer will be given to the question of whether strategic planning is really so important. Further the strategic management and competitive advantage and the process of strategic management and his steps will be also considered. The positive guidelines to application of the strategic management in entrepreneurship will be briefly given.

In terms of strategic management and entrepreneurship in the Republic of Kosovo the access to the entrepreneurship by the Government of RK will be exposed. Reference to the role of the Agency for Support of Entrepreneurship of the Republic of Kosovo (ASERM) will be also given. In that relation, the Program of measures and activities in support of the entrepreneurship and creating competitiveness of small businesses in the Republic of Kosovo will be taken into consideration, as well as other programs adopted by the Government, that relate to the entrepreneurship and the small businesses. Other activities of the Government of the RK for encouragement of the entrepreneurship will be specified. In relation to the strategic framework for support of the development of small businesses the documents in which it is defined will be mentioned. An emphasis of the extent of application of the strategic management in small and medium companies will be given, i.e. whether they do apply the strategic management and to what extent they are doing so.

The Analyses of Management and Manager’s Experience Impact on Success of Kosovo SME’s

Enver Krasniqi, University for Business and Technology
Xhevdet Krasniqi, Arsimi I Shqipërisë, Prishtinë
Dea Krasniqi, Westmister Business School, London

Pristina, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:45 PM

This paper deals with a detailed overview of management in general with the SME growth and development in Kosovo. So, it deals with the main factors such as the main components of management and its impact on the success and development, the techniques and the approaches to assess the SME economic system and their development. With the contribution of research to SMEs that take initiatives towards the Strategy implementation of their strategic development. This paper also deals with the growth of micro and small economic firms and the role of Management experiences in firm success. Until today there is no unique model that explains management and firm’s growth in aspect of management theories. We have also mentioned the life cycle phases of firms that are not based on economic theory but have received much attention from organizational theories of enterprises. The economic situation in Kosovo contains the performance indicators based on business registration in Kosovo. So, chronologically were analysed a Kosovo's economic development is generally, given that Kosovo has a liberal trade regime characterized by simplicity and neutrality of business or SME registration. This has slowed down or hindered the development of the private sector in a coordinated and controlled manner, as well as creating conditions for exports or SMEs to be competitive in the region and beyond. This has adversely affected the improvement of the competitiveness of newly established local manufacturing sectors, where Kosovo is facing high trade deficits and a non-favourable ratio of import and export coverage. This kind of created situation will hinder stability and macroeconomic growth. Research findings on SME management problems in Kosovo have to do with diagnosing the current state of micro, small and medium enterprises. The other purpose of this research is to produce important results for the existing situation, structure, difficulties, etc. Data provided in this paper are provided by the Kosovo Agency of Statistics and Kosovo Customs as well as by a questionnaire conducted by BSCK in 2016, with 500 businesses throughout Kosovo except the northern part. In the framework of the empirical analysis, the model of factor analysis and linear regression model was applied, where the dependent variable "The Profit growth and overall turnover of SMEs in Kosovo" was defined.

The Socioeconomic and Human well-being Issues of Coal Mine Workers in Orakzai And Kohat Districts, Pakistan

Muhammad Ashfaq, International Islamic University Islamabad

Pristina, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:45 PM

The basic assumption of the study is that National and Provincial mineral policies and mining laws are facilitating coal miners’ health issues as well as have the provision for safety trainings, but due to the lack of implementation of these policies and laws many accidents have been happened on daily bases in coal mines. Most of the miners have been got injured due to lack of concentration and proper monitoring of the state functionaries the coal mine regular and temporary workers have been exploited by the mine owner. On one hand, causes of the worker death and diseases are not only natural but are exacerbated as a result of not being reported by “Inspectors” and “Engineers” who have been appointed for the safety of the workers. The study revealed the relationship between mine’s owner, engineer and inspector which also contributing in the death of miners. These people are getting political economic benefits from that relationship. The study explains the ratio and causes occurring in both private and government coal fields. The study elaborates the affect mining activities on human well-being. The main focus of this study is the coal mine workers death disease causes and as well as sexual harassment of miners children happened due to not proper monitoring from inspectors who appointed for miners safety and their welfare. In-depth interviews are used for this studies and this study conducted in District Kohat and District Orakzai, Pakistan.