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2020
Saturday, October 31st
9:00 AM

Application of UAVs technology in 3D modelling of buildings

Almedina Rapuca, University of Tirana
Namik Kopliku, University of Tirana
Arsim Rapuca, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

With the development of technology, new methods have begun in the field of geodesy. Nowadays, where there is more space, new instruments are used as they are more practical, easier to use and the work process is faster. One of the technologies that has started to be widely used in recent years is "Unmanned Aerial Vehicles" (UAVs), especially drones have become very popular and use in different field. UAV means unmanned aerial vehicle on board, which is remotely controlled by a ground operator. In this paper we present application of UAVs technology in 3D modelling of buildings, the case study is the castle of Artana. Here are presented the conditions of use of drones, advantages and disadvantages, laws to be applied for their use, etc. After surveying the castle building with a drone, the measurements were processed and the 3D presentation of Artana castle was done. In the end of this paper we come to the conclusion that the using the drone is good solution, accurate and efficient in measuring objects with sufficient accuracy and for the shorter time in large surface.

Damage observed in structures of different types during the inspection after the Durrës earthquake of 26.11.2019 and proposals for their repair

Arsim Rapuca, University for Business and Technology
Naim Mushi, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

During the inspection of various construction structures such as: school buildings, houses, multi-storey buildings, etc. of different structural systems after the Durrës earthquake of 26.11.2019, various damages were observed in structural and non-structural elements. Damages were of various natures such as: defects during the implementation of structures, defects in the quality of materials, construction of additional floors on existing ones, use of structures with poor ductility such as massive masonry systems, negligence of supervision or construction without supervision, etc. In reinforced concrete structures, damage to the ground floor columns (mainly in plastic hinge regions), damage to the protective layers of the reinforcement and the presence of corrosion in the reinforcement, collapse of the masonry fillings, etc.; in massive masonry structures, diagonal cracks in the walls, partition in the corners at the connections between the walls, and at the connection of the wall with the ceiling tile have been observed. Some of the retrofit and repair methods that can be used to strengthen existing structures are: reinforced concrete jacketing, steel confinement, FRP wraps, FRP rebars, etc.

Design optimization of steel building using MINLP

Tomaž Žula, University of Maribor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Transportation Engineering and Architecture, Smetanova

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

The paper presents the design optimization of the steel building. The structure consists of the main portal frames, which are mutually connected with the purlins. It is proposed that all structural elements are constructed from standard hot rolled IPE sections. The structural optimization is calculated by the mixed-integer non-linear programming approach, MINLP. The dimensioning of steel members is carried out in accordance with the design specifications of Eurocode 3. The Modified Outer-Approximation/Equality-Relaxation (OA/ER) algorithm, a three-phase MINLP strategy and a special prescreening procedure of discrete alternatives are used for the optimization. In addition to the optimal structural mass, the optimal cross-section sizes of the structural elements, the optimal intermediate distances between the steel frames and the optimal intermediate distances between the purlins and rails were determined. An example of structural optimization is presented at the end of the paper.

Design upgrade for the hybrid glulam-steel roof structure of the sports hall for the new High School in Graçanica

Bledian Nela

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

This paper presents the design upgrade of the roof structure for a sports hall which consists of coupled glulam beams with steel substructure. The initial design has foreseen main glulam beams which are coupled with steel trusses and strengthened with rigid steel bars over the entire length. Due to some construction issues and design misinterpretation, the as-built structure did not follow completely the design and reinforcement rebars have been used instead of steel bars intended to be acting as steel ties. A design upgrade was required to preserve the main structure of the roof established with glulam beams, purlins and all the necessary layers to create a flat roof deck for students’ access. The main challenge of the new design was to preserve the glulam beams and the initial architecture for the roof structure while ensuring safety for both the ultimate and serviceability loading cases. Initially, four proposals are provided with different solutions and among them only two are chosen for the further assessment based on safety, cost estimation, feasibility and ease of implementation in order to avoid problems on site. One of the proposals consists of steel cables anchored at both ends and deviated on each steel truss and the other proposal consists of stainless-steel rods connected at each intersection with the steel trusses. After careful and detailed assessment of the two proposals, the second proposal consisting of steel rods was chosen as the most appropriate one in terms of safety, cost, feasibility and ease for construction. Additional assessment, detailing, specifications and test procedure, are given to ensure an effective structural solution for a practical problem on an existing structure.

Differences of Lateral Behavior of Buildings with RC Slabs without beams vs. RC Slabs with beams

Ilir Hetemi, University for Business and Technology
Arbnor Hetemi, QAP - Center for Professional Education

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

Lateral behavior of RC Buildings is a great importance when it is in question the earthquake happening, so in this paper are presented the differences between buildings which have slabs without beams compared with those that in their slabs have included beams. Analysis is done for low and middle rise building, because these buildings are predominant in our region. The reason why we have analyzed here the lateral behavior of such cases is due to the fact that nowadays around us are used so many building using slabs without beams because they represent a flexible solution in functional organizing the internal area in the aspect of architectural requirements. Analysis is done for some typical cases just to present the differences in the aspect of lateral behavior and important parameters such are: inter-story drifts, top displacements and some other similar parameters when is in question the lateral displacements.

Experimental and Numerical characterization of ultralow-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Slit Dampers

Ferit Gashi, Student, Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome
Fransesco Petrini, Assistant Professor, Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome
Franco Bontempi, Professor, Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

Slit Damper devices (SDs) have been increasingly studied in last years for they implementation in building constructions to enhance the seismic resistance of structures. SDs are designed as yielding fuses that dissipate energy through large inelastic deformations, while the rest of the structure remains mainly elastic. They are mainly implemented in structural connections at pre-identified locations along the structure and should be able to sustain as much hysteretic cycles as possible before material collapse or fatigue failure in order to prevent local collapses and consequent loss of dissipative capacity. In this paper, finite element (FE) detailed models of single SD devices are presented and analysed under experimental testing-like pseudo-static load protocols by the commercial FE code ABAQUS®. The FE analyses of a variety of SDs in steel which varies each other in shape (hourglass-like shaped) and thickness in order to investigate hysteretic dissipation performances for the preliminary planning of a set of experimental tests. On the basis of the indications provided by the FE analyses, a subsequent experimental campaign is carried out to investigate the low-cycle fatigue damage for the proposed SDs. The SDs was designed for excellent fatigue performance, since the low-cycle fatigue characteristics of the steel SD can be efficiently defined by the Manson-Coffin relationship. These enhanced analyses provided good predictions of the onset of failure in full-scale steel castings across various specimen sizes and loading histories. Finally, it may be said that the newly proposed model can predict well the residual plastic displacements and the remaining life of the damper damaged after an earthquake.

Industrial Archeology in the City of Gjirokastra seen from a structural perspective

Egla Luca, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

The industrial development in Albania arrived late. On the eve of independence, back in the early 1900s, the country was essentially an agricultural economy. The industrialization of the country span a period of almost 150 years starting from the earlier industrial traces to the end of the communist era. The industry helped to form the country's modern image, awareness, and understanding about the role of industrialization; and monuments that it left behind and the communities it has managed to build, and created opportunities to better known themselves/ourselves. (Luca, 2017) This paper is focused on the Industrial Archeology of the City of Gjirokastra, seen from a structural perspective. The historic town of Gjirokastra, is dominated by 13-th century castle which is located in a commanding position high on a ridge that overlooks the Drino valley. In 2005, the castle and historical parts of the city were registered by UNESCO as “World Heritage Center”. The 'New Town' of Gjirokastra was built mainly under the socialist rule by mid-20th century. Gjirokastra plays a major role in the Albanian industrial heritages. Because of the process of industrialization throughout the country and in Gjirokastra in particular, the socio-economic development and the population growth, dictated the initiation and development of industrial production. This paper is focused in the structural assessment of former industrial settlements in an historic city.

Methods for analysis and dimensioning of flat slabs in relation to Eurocode 2

Naim Munishi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Nabi Pllana, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Arsim Rapuca, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

Considering the rapid development of the flat slab system, utilizing space and facilitating faster construction, investors’ demand for aesthetics and economic advantages, this research has been done regarding the treatment of methods and analysis as well as the dimensioning of flat slabs in relation to the Eurocode 2 standard. In many analyses and scientific publications where these systems have been addressed, it has been proven that this form of flat slabs construction is earthquake sensitive if it is not designed properly. More than a century so far, flat slabs are still active areas of research to enhance bearing capacity quality and better design procedure. Seeing that the use of flat slab has begun widely used, the purpose of this paper is to analyse and address the functionality of use, methods and analysis based on the Eurocode 2 standard (Design of concrete structures: EN 1992-1-1:2004 / A1:2071, IDT). The treated methods are: Equivalent Frame Method (Strip Method) and Finite Element Method. The comparison of the calculation method through the numerical example is analysed and presented, the results of the two methods are compared, and finally the results are commented and conclusions are given about the advantages and disadvantages of this system.

MINLP optimization of structures

Stojan Kravanja, University of Maribor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Transportation Engineering and Architecture, Smetanova
Tomaž Žula, University of Maribor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Transportation Engineering and Architecture, Smetanova

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

The paper discusses the mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) approach to the optimization of structures. The MINLP is an optimization technique which is able to solve non-linear and discrete optimization problems. It calculates continuous variables (loads, dimensions, stresses, deflections, costs) and discrete variables (topology, standard sections, material grades). The MINLP optimization model of a structure should be developed. In the model, an objective function is subjected to structural analysis and dimensioning constraints in order to satisfied ultimate and serviceability limit states according to Eurocodes. Appropriate MINLP algorithms and strategies are used to solve the defined MINLP problem. Two numerical examples are presented at the end of the paper.

Passive control of structures – the dynamic case

F. H. Selmani, University for Business and Technology

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

Lately, powerful earthquakes stroke some parts of the world, while the Balkan peninsula was hit by moderate ones. During a powerful earthquake, a building structure is invaded by an enormous quantity of kinetic energy . From the manner this energy is, first absorbed, then dissipated throughout building structure depends, not only the reaction of structure as a whole, or structural elements in particular, but the nature, the distribution and the quantity of the damages also. As Nikola Tesla once quoted: “If you want to find the secrets of universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration”. In order to be able to achieve some degree of control, in structural engineering, the frequency is the fundamental parameter one must begin with. Passive control is actively implemented in the developed countries, whereas intensive laboratory examinations are underway the last two decades in the domain of semi-active and active structural control as well. This Paper deals with one of such: the seismic isolation. It represents a modest temptation in this direction. In the first 2019 conference paper, static case has been treated, whereas this paper treats the more general case – the dynamic response of a SDOF simple system.

10:45 AM

Architectural characteristics, materials and craftsmanship of roofs in Theth, a village in the Albanian Alps

Kreshnik Merxhani, Frelance Architect, Invited lectorer at EPOKA University
Ndre Mjeda, University of Tirane

Lipjan, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

The following article is a result of an “in field study” for the roofs in the village of Theth - located in the heart of the Albanian Alps. The expeditions was held in July and September 2018. The village of Theth is spread in more than 4 km² separated in 11 neighborhoods. Today still can be find a considerable number of authentic houses that face a rapid change and deterioration due to “modernization” and abandonment. With focus on roof structures the article bring information and data for one of the less studied traditional architectural element and try to give advices on how to restore and rehabilitate them. Typologically the roofs of Theth are part of the so called “Alpine Roofs”. The considerable inclination make them different from the other roofs used in traditional buildings in Albania. The construction and also the covering is realized with pine wood, which is a special kind of pine that was preferable called by local craft-people as “Rock Pine” or “Black Pine” (Pinus nigra Arn.) known to be grow in the high mountains and especially in rocky ground. This make the wood of this pine dense and rich in resins, two characteristics that guarantee the long life of the wood. Craft-people used to be local, and that’s why in the terminology of the roof elements is mainly Albanian and bare very few Turkish-ottoman words that we find often in other regions in Albania.

Concrete conformity control according to SK EN 206: 2013 during the construction of the bridge B400 on the “Arbën Xhaferi”

Lekë Krasniqi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Driton R. Kryeziu, University for Business and Technology
Nebi Pllana, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

This material describes the concept of control and conformity assessment of concrete based on the SK EN 206: 2013 standard. Among the basic requirements for concrete is the control and conformity assessment of compressive strength of concrete, as one of the main characteristics of hardened concrete. Given the fact that the control of concrete conformity is a topic that has never been addressed in our country and as a result we do not have the necessary information on the quality level of concrete on which these concrete structures are built, then we decided to further research such a topic. We also note that the conformity assessment of concrete is necessary due to the management of the required quality level and its maintenance at the same level and secondly it is a legal obligation to meet and guarantee the overall quality of the built structure. This study was carried out at the concrete production plant of the company "Bechtel ENKA" during the construction of the bridge at length of: L = 5800 m "as part of the highway ” Arbën Xhaferi “ Since for the realization of the bridge in question, for different elements of the bridge there were different classes of concrete, we mainly used the data of the results of compressive strength in fc, cube for concretes of classes C25/30 and C 30/37. The results obtained for each element of the bridge are presented in tabular form, at the same time using the statistical control cards of the process these data are also presented graphically. It should be noted that the results of the tests taken in the analysis belong to the quality control of concrete for the period 2017-2018.In order to achieve the intended results, parts of this topic are also some chapters which are described as follows: • Conformity control and conformity criteria • Factory production control system • Sampling plan • Analysis of the results reviewed • Discussion of results • Customer risk assessment and supplier risk.

Correlation between Density in situ and Deformation Modulus

Mergim Thaci, University of Prishtina
Ragip Behrami, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University

Lipjan, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

Density in situ and deformation modulus are two of the most common tests applied to control parameters of soil and layers during the construction of transportation lines. Given that the deformation modulus test is performed for a relatively short time then it is very important to find the correlation between these two tests for each type of soil or layer in order to know the approximate value of density in situ immediately. In this paper we have presented statistical data from field tests and comparative values that have been obtained.

Mechanical Properties of Ordinary and High Performance Fly Ash Concrete

Anjeza Alaj, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Tatsuya Numao, Ibaraki University

Lipjan, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

This paper presents mechanical properties of ordinary and high performance concrete that contain different percentage of Kosovo and Japanese fly ash (FA). Ordinary and high performance concrete contains FA as a replacement of cement in different percentage, and all mix design went under examination. For comparison, a control concrete mixture without FA content was also produced. The fresh properties of ordinary and high performance concrete were observed through slump test and the hardened properties including compressive up to 350 respectively 625 days and drying shrinkage. Test results confirm that it is possible to produce ordinary and high performance concrete with 30% of cement replacement and it is expected results to increase values by time. The use of FA in ordinary and high performance of concrete not only improved the workability but also made it possible to produce quality of concrete C25/30 and C 50/60 at 56 respectively 100 days, while in some cases exceeds the expected compressive strength for ordinary and high performance concrete. To develop this research, 24 different mix designs went under the testing procedures and all examination took place in concrete laboratory in Kosovo and Japan.

Practicing Professional Ethics in Engineering: How This Field is Developed and Its Importance

Ragip Behrami, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University
Ilir Hetemi, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University
Arton Qorri, University for Business and Technology

Lipjan, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

Many associations of engineers around the world have worked to develop rules in an effort to regulate the ethical practice of the engineer’s profession. These rules are usually referred as Code of Ethics for Engineers and tries to explain how an engineer must practice his work with professional ethics. The purpose of this paper is to show, in informative form, how this field has developed around the world and to emphasize the importance of implementing these rules during the practice of the profession of engineer.

Seismic Isolation – Usage of seismic base isolation to reduce the ductility demand for concrete elements

F. H. Selmani, University for Business and Technology
Agon Sadikaj

Lipjan, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

This master thesis describes the concept of seismic isolation, and its effect on the behavior of reinforced concrete structures under the influence of seismic action. The purpose of using seismic isolation is to consume some of the energy introduced and reduce the demand for energy dissipation within structural elements. The study of this phenomenon was done by addressing its basic purpose and methods of analysis. To present the effectiveness of base isolation on controlling deformations in reinforced concrete structures, a typical multi-story structure is modeled with and without seismic isolation, analyzing their dynamic behavior with computer simulations. The obtained results are presented graphically and tabularly, including the respective displacements, pseudo-relative accelerations and relative inter-story drifts for both, as well as the rotational moments presented in all plastic hinges and their comparison between the two models together with EC-8 requirements.

The Effect of Concrete Sample Size in the Compressive Strength Value of Concrete

Erion Luga, Epoka University, Department of Civil Engineering
Erion Periku, Epoka University, Department of Civil Engineering
Paulin Sheperi, "A.L.T.E.A." GEOSTUDIO 2000

Pristina, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials. Compressive strength is one of the most important properties of hardened concrete. Different codes use different standards to define the characteristic strength. Albania nowadays is adapting the EN standards, but previously it used to apply the local code KTP. According to KTP standards the concrete samples were cubic specimens of 200mm side length. This study is an attempt to analyse the relation between sample size and compressive strength values of concrete specimens. For this purpose, 4 concrete classes of C8/10, C16/20, C20/25, C30/37 and 5 different cubic sizes of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250mm side length were investigated. The samples were taken according to EN 206-1. Six samples were tested for the determination of the compressive strength value of each class/size combination. According to the compressive strength test results the values increase as the size increases up to 150mm, but as the cube size continues to increase the compressive strength values decrease gradually.

Various Practices to Avoid the Possibilities of Segregation Occurrence in Reinforced Concrete Elements and Treatment of Segregations

Ermal Osaj, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Ragip Behrami, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University
Alban Xhema, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Abedin Mehmeti, Graduated Civil Engineer, employed at construction company R&RUKOLLI, Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo

Lipjan, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

The occurrence of segregations in the monolithic reinforced concrete elements is a very common case in the everyday practice of construction works. Through this paper we have made an effort to present our experiences related to this issue by addressing our attempt to eliminate the occurrence of segregations in concrete from two aspects: 1) by obtaining technical measures to reduce or eliminate the possibility of segregation occurrence and 2) by assuming proper geometry of the elements of structures. The measures we have taken have mainly been quite successful and have greatly influenced the performance of reinforced concrete elements. The paper also contains some methods applied for the treatment of segregations.

1:30 PM

Analysis of the Sensitivity of the geo-mechanical parameters that affect the geo-mechanical stability

Idaver Huseini, Faculty of Engineering-UT, Tetovo, Republic of North Macedionia
Nexhmi Krasniqi, University for Business and Technology

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

The subject of this research is the analysis of the sensitivity of the geo-mechanical stability of slopes of the surface coal mines of the main influential factors. Its main purpose is to define the interaction between the geological environment and the engineering activity. This definition should derive from defined properties and conditions of the geological environment, on one side, and the impact of the engineering activity, on the other. It begins with the definition of the working environment in geotechnical terms, which refers to a certain volume of soil mass within the filed with their general physical, structural, mechanical and hydraulic properties, separated in the field framework, upon and in which working activities are being conducted. In this sense, the proper research methodology – field analyzing is imposed as one of the most important questions, upon which the successful treatment of every geotechnical problem depends. It is regarded that without proper methodological approach, successful resolving of any geotechnical problem is not possible. Most argumentative conclusion is that the selection of the values of the geo-mechanical parameters of materials is one of the most complex and most sensitive tasks in the stability analysis.

Application of modeling and simulation in the analysis of hydraulic systems

Ahmet Bytyçi, University for Business and Technology
Blertë Retkoceri, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

This paper shows some selected problems related to both modelling and the simulation of hydraulic systems, by making use of MATLAB-Simulink package. The author intention is to underline the advantages of this programme offers in performing the functional tests of the complex hydraulic systems. In this purpose there have been considered the basic mathematical models of certain selected elements and phenomena occurring in hydraulic systems. The models are shown as block diagrams adapted to the package requirements. Afterwards, taking as example a complex hydraulic system - that is a hydraulic transmission - there has been illustrated the use of the models and elementary diagrams in simulation tests.

Hydrological water balance of the Lepenc basin

Faruk Hajrizi, University for Business and Technology
Izet Ibrahimi, University of Pristina

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

The environmental problems of lakes and rivers are the result of pollution from human activity, whether from productive activity, or from pollution from wastewater discharges. The main objective of the paper is to monitor the physico-chemical parameters of the water in order to make a hydrological water balance for the Lepenc river basin and to understand the risk that threatens the people of the area to be left without drinking water. By treating them together in all river basins, sub-basins, catchments, as well as at the most detailed level where necessary with individual "water bodies". This paper also aims to: understand the key issues in sub-basins and catchments and how they interact with each other; understand how these issues affect current local benefits and future water uses; involve local people, communities, organizations and businesses in decision-making, exchanging evidence and opinions; find answers to which issues to address as a priority, identify cost implications, and propose how these issues can be funded; we support a simple statement of options to the catchment plan, to protect and improve individual water bodies, catchments, and ultimately, the entire river basin, for the benefit of all.

Integrated Water Resources Management

Ermal Daka, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

In our country water resources are limited. The country's water resources must be used in the form of integrated management, where careful use and protection from pollution must be done. The construction of any hydro technical facility for water use must be analyzed very carefully and to achieve maximum results in meeting the requirements of those interested in water and to have the highest possible security of meeting the requirements with water. Water used for municipal needs as well as their use in the economy must be cleaned before being released to the recipient. This preserves water resources for prudent use as well as protecting the environment from pollution.

Rehabilitation and Optimization of the Water Supply Distribution Network of Durrës

Andrin Kërpaçi, University of Tirana
Ilir Abdullahu, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

The condition of the water supply and the actual functioning of the distribution network in Durres area are inadequate to sustain demand at an acceptable level of service for all the billing zones.The distribution network of Durres city is fed at one point (Xhafzotaj junction) for 300-350 l/s with an elevation of about 50 m asl. The planned new transmission line has a diameter of 700 mm and will bring extra 630 l/s.The water distribution systems are one of the vital urban infrastructures and their operationwith a high level of service are of high importance.Many phenomena in water supply systems such as leakage, breakage of pipes etc. are afunction of pressure. When pressure dependency of demand is considered in the hydraulicanalysis, the results thereof shall be consistent with reality.This article presents the new design methodology for a good optimization of the distribution network. The distribution network has been reconstructed as a ring network. It is planned to build 6 DMA’as (District Metered Area) to control the flow, pressure and consumption in DMA to build the Water Balance.

Sewer inspection with CCTV, Smoke and Dye test in Kosovo

Skender Bublaku, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Wastewater by households but also by industries are considered as the main pollutants of surface and groundwater in Kosovo. In order to improve the environment, Kosovo has entered into a dynamic process of treatment of municipal wastewater from urban areas. Wastewater treatment plant for cities of Prizren, Gjakova and Peja are under construction. Cities such as Prishtina, Gjilan, Mitrovica, and Podujeva are also in the initial process. In order for a better management of the water that will go to the treatment system, an inspection of the sewerage network is necessary. The methodology selected for inspection in the cities of Prizren, Gjakova and Peja includes the cleaning following by the inspection of the condition of the pipes with CCTV. Also inspections with smoke and dye test were mainly for finding of the wrong connections in the sewerage network from stormwater pipe. High resolution cameras are used to inspect pipes made of various materials such as Ceramics, Concrete ,Asbestos Cement and HDPE with diameters from 150 to 1000 mm. For each of the three cities, approximately 20 km were inspected with CCTV and equally with smoke and dye test. Inspection results indicate a poor condition of sewer pipes. From filling with sediments, in some cases even over 70% of the diameter to numerous defects in the connection between the pipes causing also the penetration of groundwater into the network. Pipes from ceramic material are considered to be in a very poor condition in Gjakova while in Prizren sediment deposition is very high in many areas. Also, direct connections to the sewerage pipes are present in large numbers in Peja and Prizren, while less in Gjakova. Inspection also indicate a poor installation in the construction phase, which is also expressed in pipes that are not very old. The results of the investigations show that immediate steps must be taken to improve the operation of the sewerage system. This includes a general cleaning of the sewer pipes, a planned maintenance system with a plan for cleaning yearly. It is also necessary to make a hydraulic analysis of the whole system and replace certain segments of sewer pipes. Disconnection of stormwater that is connected to the sewerage network must be done and correction of wrong connections and direct connections to pipes. These activities are necessary to be done in the sewerage network because there is a risk that wastewater treatment plants will not be able to treat wastewater according to the defined criteria of the technological process.

The Importance of Pressure Management in the Distribution Network within a DMA

Ilir Abdullahu, University for Business and Technology
Sokol Xhafa, University for Business and Technology

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

This paper addresses the problem of optimal pressure management in water distribution systems through the introduction and regulation of pressure reducing valves. Pressure management is one of the fundamental elements of a good flow management strategy development. The flow rate in water distribution networks is a function of pressure applied by pumps or by gravity. There is a physical relationship between flow rate and pressure, and there is also evidence that the frequency of new cracks is a function of pressure: System pressure management is an effective method to control leaks. This is usually achieved by dividing a large system into a small number of sections, i.e. the District Metering Area (DMA). The flow in DMA is monitored by installing bulk water meters at the inlet as well as at the borders, while the pressure is controlled with PRV. Water loss control is practiced by water utilities and end users using the DMA methodology. To understand the role played by both parties it is important to understand the responsibility for water loss.

The possibility of constructing the Lepenc sub-system as part of the Ibër-Lepenc Hydro System Project, Kosovo

Bekim Selimi, University for Business and Technology

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Recent years Kosovo’s municipalities suffer from water shortages due to hydrological drought and the misuse of water resources. The situation has worsened in the last ten years due to the occurrence of extremely dry periods and poor rainfall. Reservoirs are a source of water for major towns, but in rural areas only 61% of houses connect to public supply systems, supplemented by wells or springs. Water quality of Kosovo’s rivers suffers from lack of residential and industrial wastewater treatment and poor riverbed maintenance, further limiting the availability of water for drinking supply and irrigation. The Ibër-Lepenc system was designed to supply industry, water companies and agriculture with bulk water for North, most of Central and East of Kosova as well as produce power from the Power Plant. The detailed project was prepared in the 1970s and consisted of two sub-systems; Ibër and Lepenc. The Ibër system was implemented in the 1980s and is in operation for more than 35 years, while the Lepenc system was never implemented. Due to issues mentioned above, the Lepenc sub-system should be constructed to increase the availability of water resources in these areas. After 50 years of the design there are needs to change the design and adapt to the current situation. Now are different social, economic and cultural conditions, new standards and technologies seismic and geophysical measurements and studies since the 1970s, the considerable growth in the urban settlements during the last 50 years, cross-boundary implications with the North of Macedonia, etc. The possibility of constructing the Lepenc sub-system as part of the Ibër-Lepenc Hydro System Project is the focus of this study.

Water reuse in collective and business buildings

Blertë Retkoceri, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Skender Bublaku, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Kosovo is estimated to have limited surface and subsurface water resources and is classified as such in a group of water stress states. To meet the shortages of these resources but also for environmental and economic reasons, water reuse is now considered as a good opportunity to meet the shortages. Reuse is defined as the reuse of water used by objects, water that can be collected from roofs, other surface and groundwater in and around objects. This paper deals with Object IV on the UBT Campus in Lipjan and analyzes the feasibility of meeting the water requirement from the facility's reuse of water and the use of rainwater from the roof along with the facility's drainage water. To determine these quantities and the manner of use, Object IV designed the supply and disposal system for the water to be used for drinking, the removal of wastewater, gray water, the collection of rainwater from the roof and drainage water from the object. The IV object of the UBT campus in Lipjan is designed for a 5257 m2 of basement and roof area. The water coming out of the sinks that will be used for reuse will be designed separately from the sewage. Also, a reuse system for laundering toilets was set up separately from other sanitary supplies. Drinking water requirements for Object IV are estimated at 4.8 l / s while the discharged water used may range from 30-60 l / s. Rainfall calculation for a 50 year iteration with duration of 3 minutes maximum will be 4 mm which implies that the maximum amount of conveyance of the roof rating par 5257 m2 is 116.8l/s, while the load for a vertical is 4.8 l/s. The maximum groundwater flow from drainage into and around the object provides an estimated 7.5 l/s. From the analysis of the results of water quantities, thay are calculated the volumes that can be reused by gray, rainwater and groundwater: From the reuse of gray water generated by the sinks of the facility it is possible to provide about 27 m3 per day of service to be used for washing in the toilet. From rainwater that can be reused and from groundwater these volumes are 1260 and 54 m3 respectively. This volume will provide services for the desired greenfield conservation plot of approximately 1 ha and a valuable reserve for emergencies such as fire. The results of the paper indicate that it is possible to obtain a valuable amount of water from reuse of waste water, rainwater utilization and drainage that will meet the severe shortage of water. Also, potential water use has a positive environmental impact and reduces the economic cost of water use. This paper suggests authorities dealing with the definition of construction criteria in Kosovo to look at the possibility of applying again the criteria for water reuse, especially urban areas in buildings with large surfaces.

3:30 PM

Building materials and environmental indicators for urban planning-exposure

Afrim Syla, University for Business and Technology

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Sustainable development is a key component in urban studies. The sustainability of buildings has become a headline topic in recent years. Buildings do not exist in isolation from their environment, however, but are integrated with infrastructure. In defining sustainable buildings, the issue arises how to incorporate the influences of not only user behavior, building design and technologies, but the associated infrastructure that comprises the entire built environment. The built environment considered here includes all buildings and infrastructure, and in this context, comprises approximately 10% of global GDP. The building and construction sector alone is not only the largest consumer of natural resources, in terms of both land use and materials extraction, but is responsible for 30-40% of global primary energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An important element in the implementation of sustainability goals in the built environment is the availability and dissemination of quantified knowledge about the effects that the construction, use, maintenance, and decommissioning of buildings and infrastructure are having on the environment. One approach to making that knowledge available and useful in the pursuit of sustainability is through the use of indicators. Indicators can be defined as variables that have been chosen for their ability to describe specific characteristics in the state of a system. Many sets of indicators have been developed, and then utilized independently or aggregated into indices to assess different components or aspects of sustainability, While many of these indicator sets and indices incorporate segments of the built environment into their analyses, none of them incorporate a complete and specific set of indicators.

Identification and Reduction of Conflict Points Through the Round Circulation Proposal

Nol Dedaj, University for Business and Technology
Adelina Nika, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Albulene Zeqiraj, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Vehbija Nasufaga, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Heavy traffic on roads and traffic jam is becoming a very concerning phenomena not only for the traffic users but for the persons who deal with this phenomenon. Increasing number of traffic users such as cars` users and the vehicles on traffic, has caused the long line of vehicles on roads causing to the driver wasting the time, being behind the schedule and not realizing the plans, and feeling nervous. Studying this topic, at first is treating some of the mistakes made on traffic, particularly on roundabout, that could not be presented or eliminated from the very beginning of the building of the roundabout. Now, by the reconceptual project, the idea of eliminating the conflict points has been given, black pots and reduction of the accident cases and benefits of time now days that life became very dynamic, and we do need the ease movements on traffic, and so for all categories of vehicles

Maritime Transport System in Transportation Cargo

Blerton Calaj, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Ilir Mehmedi, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Transportation refers to any type of vehicle that you can travel in or carry goods in. Transportation is a system for taking people or goods from one place to another place, for example using buses or trains. The growth of the ability and the need to transport large quantities of goods or numbers of people over long distances at high speeds and safety, has been an index of civilization and in particular of technological progress. Ground freight encompasses less than truckload and full truckload, where ocean and air freight are associated also by their respective processes. Shipping can be carried out at any distance by boat, ship, or sailboat, over oceans and lakes, through canals or along rivers. While extensive domestic transport is less important today, the world’s major waterways include many canals that are still very important and are an integral part of economies around the world. Virtually any material can be moved thru the water, however, water transport becomes impractical when distribution of materials is critical over time, such as different types of perishable products. Anyway, the maritime transport take still the first place of transportation and it help on economy of some countries, it is impossible to imagine some biggest coastal cities of the world without their own ports. Freight transport is essential for human life in general, with the increase in transport between continents through oceans, the quality of life has increased too, and it has become possible connection with different cultures such as flora and fauna, different foods, technology, etc. Things that previous generations especially in our country, did not have the knowledge that exist. However, water transport is very cost effective with regular loads, such as trans-ocean transport of consumer products and especially for heavy loads or bulk cargoes, such as coal, ores or cereals. Certainly, the industrial revolution took place mostly, where water transport through natural or artificial waterways, supported cost-effective transport. In this way this type of transport took first place in the world mainly in the transport of goods.

Monitoring and Assessment of Environmental Pollution from Tpp Activity Kosovo and Kosovo B in The Municipality of Obiliq, Kosovo

Flaka Deda, Youth Care Kosovo – Pristina, Kosovo

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Environmental pollution is one of the most worrying problems facing humankind globally today. Human activities have been associated with the pollution of air, water, soil, food, flora, fauna, etc., as a result of the emission of various pollutants. Among other things, the production of electricity from fossil fuels constitutes one of the potential stationary pollutants globally. Obiliq Municipality lies in the central part of Kosovo, with an area of 105 km2, classified as an area with large lignite reserves and as one of the most polluted municipalities in Kosovo. Environmental pollution is related to the most important energy potentials of KEK, TPPs “Kosova A”, and “Kosova B”, the superficial coal mines Bardh and Mirash, the ash dumps of TPPs, the electricity transmission infrastructure, etc. These sources derive the largest amounts of solid particles in the form of PM10 and PM2.5, SOx and NOx, and a series of other organic and inorganic pollutants. The aim of the study was to identify, monitor and evaluate environmental pollution as a result of the activity of the Kosovo A and Kosovo B power plants, and to recommend alternative measures to minimize the negative effects of environmental pollution. The study was conducted during the period October 2019-May 2020. During this study it was possible to assess the air quality in the Obiliq Municipality, through analysis of the multi-year data from the Agency for Environmental Protection of Kosovo, as well as the comparison with Kosovo and EU standards. Average 5-year data show that air quality in the areas around TPPs exceeds the allowable limit values. The level of knowledge and awareness of citizens about the impact of the activity of TPPs is at low levels. It is recommended continuous monitoring of TEC A and TEC B smokers and monitoring of air quality in the Municipality of Obiliq, feasibility study for the installation of new electrostatic protectors and new technologies for desulphurization, denitrification and elimination of dust, developing a comprehensive program to replace traditional stoves with more efficient ones, investment in renewable energy, and greater access to information on the effect of air and environmental pollution in general.

Some Ecology in Limni Lake (Güllük Lagoon- Muğlaturkey) Determination of Parameters

Ahmet Dokuyucu, Mugla Sitki Kocman University
Nedim Özdemir, Mugla Sitki Kocman University
Dijar Latifi, Mugla Sitki Kocman University
Cengiz Cesko, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Ejona Hoxhaj, University of Prishtina

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Limni Lake, which is one of efficiency lagoons of Aegean Region, covers an area of approximately 68 ha. This study was carried out to determine the water quality of Limni Lake and possible ecological parameters affecting the lake at 7 stations selected between April 2018 and March 2019. Some physico-chemical parameters (Water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, saturated oxygen, electrical conductivity, salinity, nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, ortho- phosphate, total phosphorus, suspended solids, turbidity, chlorophyll-a, BOD5 were analyzed and compared with the older datas. Water samples were analysed in the Water Analysis Laboratory of the accredited Research Laboratories of Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University and evaluated in terms of water quality. As a result of this study which continued one year, especially in summer period, some contaminations are inspected in terms of water quality and ecology which are related to vacational season, mine exportation from Güllük Port and aquaculture that is managed in soil pools.

Time series geospatial assessment of potential erosion risk using Gavrilovic method and open-access geospatial data

Edon Maliqi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Bashkim Idrizi, University of Prishtina
Petar Penev, Faculty of Geodesy, Department of Photogrammetry and Cartography. Sofia, Bulgaria

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

One of the worldwide environmental concern is the soil loss or soil erosion. The present study aims to investigate spatial-temporal distribution of intensity or density of erosion processes in last 18 years (2000– 2018). The most used model in our region known as Gavrilovic model has been implemented. The model was implemented in two time series, annually. The input data such as geology, topography (DEM), land cover, stream network catchment have been collected and recorded from different local and freely geoportals and organizations. The validation of results was made through the regular field checks and observations. In the year 2000, the most of study was observed in the “High” (31%) and “Very High” (27%) category of erosion risk, whereas in the year 2018 the most of study area was observed as “Moderate” (40%) and “High” (27%) erosion risk category. Furthermore the present study demonstrates the potential of GIS in conjunction with open- access geospatial data in order to investigate the environmental degradation.

Towards Regenerative Buildings in Kosovo

Besa Jagxhiu, University for Business and Technology
Fehrat Bejtullahu

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Architecture and construction in Kosovo, in general, are quite static, not interacting with the inhabitants and the surrounding urban environment, thus being the largest consumers of energy, water, and natural resources. Kosovo, as a country in transition, has undergone rapid urbanization, where the highest percentage of buildings are designed and built specifically for the circumstances and needs of the moment regardless of environmental conditions, ecology, or the needs and activities of residents. Therefore, this concept of traditional architecture and construction should replace with new concepts of regenerative buildings, where the buildings should interact with the environment and its inhabitants. This research aims to promote and implement the design and construction of regenerative buildings in Kosovo. It discusses the principles of the built environment design, aimed at achieving regenerative buildings.

Transportation demand management through physical improvements: The Case of Pristina

Seda Hatipoğlu
Beni Kizolli

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

In developing countries, the fact that public transportation services have not exceeded a certain level increases the use of the private vehicle as a type of transportation in urban transportation day by day. Insufficient road and parking problem is a significant obstacle in the solution of traffic problems for years. The institutions responsible for solving traffic problems have often made intractable urban traffic problems with the understanding of the necessity of high-cost investments. In this context, despite the traditional understanding, "Transportation Demand Management" strategies developed within the framework of new approaches, evaluates the problem through the outline of existing infrastructure facilities and offer alternatives to the use of private vehicles with less investment. Transportation Demand Management strategies are based on various policies and programs that result in more efficient use of traffic infrastructure. It examines situations related to urban traffic problems and argues that it can be solved through the understanding of TDM. Within the basis of urban traffic problems and solutions in Pristina; Physical improvements have been proposed within the urban central ring for the purpose of improving the public transportation system and the use of bicycles.

Transportation of Goods Around the City with Electric Vehicles

Ilir Mehmedi, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

The use of electric vehicles still accounts for a very small share of the total number of vehicles delivered, both in Europe and around the world. There is a growing number of vehicles on the roads that an increase in atmospheric pollution that reduces the quality of life for citizens. The desire and need for the introduction of electric vehicles is growing, as a reason for preserving the environment, but also for sustainable urban development. Urban logistics can be considered developed in only a few European countries, while some have not developed proposals or management systems at all. Increased trade development affects traffic. The need to deliver goods to stores or to visit customers in the trade, greatly affects the city’s logistics system and the proposed ways of managing them should be analysed. A modern way of distributing goods is to achieve positive effects on the overall traffic system, but by using them on a very small scale. The introduction of electric vans in retail chains is being used to demonstrate the possibility of introducing electric vehicles into the delivery of consumer goods ordered through online stores.With the growing development of technology, consumers have the opportunity to buy products from home. However, most still decide to visit shopping malls. The result of the usage of personal vehicles for this purpose has a very negative effect on the environment and the quality of life for residents.The paper explores customer habits, their influence on the entire system, and the possibility of introducing qualitative and sustainable ways to purchase and deliver goods.Based on the research, the main goal is to propose a method of distributing consumer goods, starting from a small city and around the country by electric vehicles. In order to propose an optimal solution, the terms urban and retail logistics will be presented, as well as the ways of modern organization of the distribution of goods for retail.

5:15 PM

Awareness and Implementation of Solid Waste Management (SWM) Practices

Emerson N. Lalamonan, Public School Teacher, DepEd-Bayawan City Division, Bayawan City, Philippines
Sheena Mae T. Comighud, Basic Education Researcher, DepEd-Bayawan City Division, Bayawan City, Philippines

Lipjan, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:00 PM

This research used the descriptive-correlational method to determine the level of respondents’ awareness and extent of implementation of Solid Waste Management (SWM) Practices in District 2, Bayawan City Division, Negros Oriental, Philippines for SY 2018-2019 in terms of the areas of segregation, reduce, reuse, recycle, and disposal. The quantitative data were gathered from 81 teachers and 189 students. Also, a survey questionnaire was utilized by the researcher. The statistical tools used in the analysis of the data were weighted mean, mean, and spearman rank correlation. The results revealed that the level of respondents’ awareness on SWM Practices as both perceived by the teachers and students were very high and the extent of implementation of these practices were very great. In addition to this, a significant relationship was noted between the levels of awareness and extents of implementation of SWM Practices. It can be concluded that the level of awareness greatly influenced the extent of implementation of SWM Practices by the teachers and students in District 2, Bayawan City Division.

Calculation of Foundation Settelments by Applying settle 3D

Hysen Ahmeti, University for Business and Technology

Lipjan, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:00 PM

Vertical loads can cause deformations (settelments) on foundations depending on soil formations. These deformations occur mainly when we are dealing with rising or falling of the groundwater level, where the phenomenon of swelling and shrinkage of the soil appears. To have a more realistic picture of the situation we must have sufficient data. In this case, data from geological-geomechanical research were taken and physical-mechanical parameters were analyzed, with these parameters the ground deformations were calculated. For each construction, the allowed safety factor must be issued that meets the condition q a >Ds z In this paper are taken into account the calculations of deformations according to loads using two comparative methods: according to settle 3D and empirical formulas which are taken as real and applied values. Most of these data are applied directly in the field, the numerical values of the deformations are harmonized in accordance with the permissible geotechnical standards

Comparison between the differences on concrete classes on the general behavior of the building

Arbëresha Kastrati, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Andrra Maloku

Lipjan, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:00 PM

The topic that I choose to elaborate in this thesis is the design of a building with individual residential character P + 1, with a skeletal constructive system, of columns, beams and massive slabs of reinforced concrete, while the foundation is the strip foundation. On this topic we will provide data on concrete and steel as materials forming structure, their characteristics, the way of accepting loads, and the joint work they do to create the elements in particular and the structure in general, covering the shortcomings of each other as building materials. then we elaborated on the conditions that must be met to calculate a concrete structure, the steps to be followed together with the calculation methods, always respecting the European construction standards for which we have shown what they are, and for what they serve as building codes. We have made a detailed presentation of the structural elements, where we have talked about the tiles, their types, the loads that accept them, the spaces they can cover, the ways of their supports, their static schemes, etc., we have also presented the beams, the way of acceptance. of the forces from them, static schemes, their reinforcement, we have done the same for pillars, also for foundations we have shown their characteristics, their types for what the formed material, for what construction, the way of their work, the choice of the application of the types of foundations, the depths of the foundation, etc., and we have illustrated all these with relevant figures. The most important part of this work is that the static account of this facility will be done twice with different grades of concrete, C25/30 and C30/37. The purpose of this paper is to show the impact of the concrete class on the amount of reinforcement as well as its impact on the cost of the project. In this work, in a detailed way, will be shown the calculation of a two-way slab, a beam, a colum and a strip foundation, where the reinforcement of each of them will be presented in a drawing.

Comparison of Plain Concrete and Lightweight Concrete and Their Impact on Climate Change

Muhamet Ahmeti, University for Business and Technology
Driton R. Kryeziu, University for Business and Technology

Lipjan, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:00 PM

The building sector accounts for approximately 30–40% of national CO2 emissions from the use of fossil fuels. As construction activities both consume energy and cause environmental pollution/emission of greenhouse gases they consequently lead to climate change. Buildings are responsible for % 40 of total energy in their life cycle stages of buildings in the world and for one third of global greenhouse gas emissions as well, in developed and developing countries. Proper technologies and strategies would play main role to reduce embodied carbon. Besides, quality of raw material, production processes, design of buildings, development level of countries, use of local materials, transportation of produced materials. In recent years in Kosovo we have an extreme increase in air pollution and pollution of nature and natural resources. Therefore, awareness has been raised about the consequences of environmental pollution as well as the negative consequences of various human activities and various technological processes in the environment. Therefore, these phenomena caused increased interest and commitment in the study of these about the impact of these effects on climate change, water, air pollution, soil and ecosystem degradation. Sustainable development in construction engineering is generally based on reducing the use of energy and natural resources, reducing pollutant emissions to soil, air and water, increasing the sustainability and service life of structures, the use of by-products, recycling and reuse of products various which are used in civil engineering from production to their implementation in construction. In Kosovo in the last decade there is a rapid development of construction and large investments in infrastructure. One of the most used materials is Concrete which has a great use in construction, infrastructure and other sectors of civil engineering. The concrete industry is a major consumer of natural resources (aggregate, clay, lime and water) and has a major impact on the environment. Many scientists are engaged in finding alternative ingredients for concrete preparation in order to save natural resources, the importance of finding and accepting the use of alternative ingredients for concrete is clearly of particular importance about the impact of these effects on changes climate, water, air pollution, soil and ecosystem degradation. One of the main products in the preparation of concrete is aggregate, the consumption of natural aggregate as the largest component of concrete is constantly growing and with great speed, the use of alternative sources of aggregate based on this construction trend is inevitable. In the construction engineering in the last decade there has been a very high demand for the application of lightweight concrete, in order to achieve greater height and reduce the weight of construction structures. Therefore, different materials have been analyzed and lighter in weight than the aggregate, which has made it possible to replace the natural aggregate. In this paper is analyzed the impact on climate change, water, air pollution, soil and degradation of ordinary concrete ecosystem and concrete to be allowed by the preparation of concrete transport and placement in the facility. Two elements of the structure were taken for analysis and analyzed from the recipe to the final product.

Finding the optimal cross section shape of the columns of a multi-story reinforced concrete structure in terms of structural behavior and technical – economical perspective.

Egla Luca, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Hysnie Jashari, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:00 PM

With the growth of population every year, more and more increases the role of high- rise structures, and therefore the design of these structures should have a greater importance. Earthquake plays and important role in shaping the structural elements of a building. The biggest damage to buildings occurs due to columns damage, which comes because of their wrong design. This research will analyze the effect of specific cross section column shapes in the global performance of a RC building. In this paper, we will analyze the structural and technical-economic performance of a 20 story building in Pristina Kosovo. A comparison will be conducted between different cross section shapes of columns, this to find the most optimal cross section shape in terms of seismic and technical economic performance. For each specific cross section shape, we will analyze the economic value, based on the market value in Kosovo, and the seismic performance. These two components will play a key role in determining the optimal cross section shape of the inner columns of a high-rise building.

Level of Science Achievement: Basis for the Production of Strategic Intervention Materials (SIMs)

Febbie C. Verano, Public School Teacher, DepEd-Bayawan City Division, Bayawan City, Philippines
Sheena Mae T. Comighud, Basic Education Researcher, DepEd-Bayawan City Division, Bayawan City, Philippines

Lipjan, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:00 PM

This research used the descriptive method to determine the level of Science Achievement of Grade VI Pupils: Basis for Production of Strategic Intervention Materials in Bayawan City East Central School, Bayawan City Division during the SY 2019-2020. The quantitative data were gathered from 134 pupils of Bayawan City East Central School, Bayawan City Division during the SY 2019-2020. Also, the researcher conducted a survey questionnaire. Descriptive method was used in this study. The statistical tools used in the analysis of the data were percentage, frequency, mean, weighted mean, and z-test. The study found out that the level of Science Achievement of Grade VI Learners of the Least Learned Organ Systems in terms of the Circulatory System, Respiratory System, and Excretory System were at low mastery level while for the Nervous System, the learners were moving towards mastery stage. Based on the given findings, it served as a basis for the production of Strategic Intervention Materials (SIM) in the different Least Learned Organ Systems namely Circulatory System, Respiratory System, Nervous System, and Excretory System in order to increase the level of learners’ achievement in Science subject.

Pros and Cons for the Incineration of Solid Waste

Kostandin Kristo, University of Tirana

Lipjan, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:00 PM

According to the latest calculations , the world is currently producing about 1.3 billion tons of garbage every year .Putting that in perspective , if we took all the human beings on the planet and placed them on an impossibly gigantic scale ,their combined weight would only be one –quarter of that amount . Unfortunately –or perhaps ominously is the better word –about 60 percent of this garbage will end up in landfills , which are multiplying globally as a pace that neraly matches the reproduction rate of the rat populations that live in them . Dumping and burying everything in landfill is not a viable solution to our collective garbage disposal problems . There simly isn’t enough usable space , horizantally or vertically to safely deposit billions of tons of this heavily contaminated material on an annual basis . Other solutions are needed and may people believe incineration facilities offer a cleaner , tidier and less land-consuming alternative .Even thugh they are not as common as landfills , municipal incinetarion plants have been around for a while , so there is nothing experimental or theoretical about this option . But is incineration truly a legitimate or desirable alternative ? That is a question with no definitive answer

Seismic Activity and Essential Seismological Characteristics of the Kosovo Territory

Shemsi Mustafa, Ministry of Economic Development, Seismological Network of Kosova
Visar Krelani, University for Business and Technology
Lulzim Beqiri, University for Business and Technology
Besian Sinani, University for Business and Technology

Lipjan, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:00 PM

In this scientific work presented are Seismic basic characteristics. Reliable seismic hazard assessment depends mainly on the level of consistency, quality and amount of data in earthquake catalogues. The lack of good seismic activity data may often affect the quality of the assessment. This short review of the seismic activity affecting the territory of Kosovo throughout the time, points out that this region should be considered having high seismic hazard potential. Having in mind that in the last two decades, the region is undergoing very fast urbanization characterized with extensive infrastructure development and building modern high rise structures with different use: residential, administrative, commercial and buildings belonging to essential facilities such are schools and hospitals it is necessary to be aware of the seismic hazard to which the built environment can be exposed and all possible consequences of such event. In order to be able to assess the seismic hazard, it is necessary to integrate data from various field such as seismology, Seismotectonic, geology, tectonics, geophysics etc.

The delineation of groundwater bodies in the Drini i Bardhë river basin in compliance with the requirements of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60 EC

Hazir Çadraku, University for Business and Technology
Fidaim Sahiti, Chief Executive-Geologic Service of Kosovo, Ministry of Economic Development

Lipjan, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:00 PM

The delineation of groundwater bodies in the Drini i Bardhë river basin in compliance with the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) is highly important for the integrated management of water resources. However, the Water Framework Directive does not specify exactly how groundwater bodies should be delimited, but provides guidance on the steps to the attainment of this goal, as it is Guidance Document GW2. In addition, this delineation of water bodies is important not only in compliance with the WFD- Guidance Document GW2 and as matter of a fact also to ensure from now on all groundwater resources that are relevant to current and future uses and which are relevant to the health of dependent ecosystems will gain full attention in the whole water management system. Furthermore, the groundwater body is the management unit under the Water Framework Directive that is necessary for the subdivision of large geographical areas of aquifer in order for them to be effectively managed. Purpose of this Paper is to give an overview of delineation of GWBs in the River Basin Drini i Bardhë, methodologies for the assessment of groundwater chemical and quantitative status as well as results of status assessment. The White Drini Basin is located in the western part of the Republic of Kosovo. Groundwater in the Drini Bardhë River Basin is of significant importance, mainly as a source of public water supply of population, irrigation, industry etc. Therefore, it also provides support for aquatic eco systems. According to the information collected for the purpose of preparation of the Drini Bardhë River Basin, have been identified 14 (GWBs).

Using Strater 3 Software in the Field of Construction

Hazir Çadraku, University for Business and Technology
Hysen Ahmeti, University for Business and Technology

Lipjan, Kosovo

5:15 PM - 6:00 PM

The location on which is targeted to build a construction engineering facility requires complex studies. In this regard, research concerned with drilling processes is the basis for extracting data related to design and construction parameters. As a result, research drilling is widely used in geotechnical research for soil and rock sampling and is one of the cost-effective methods with low environmental impact. In addition, minimum information to be included and presented regarding geotechnical drilling includes: project details and drilling date, drilling location, drilling geologist data, drilling method, laboratory test results, material mapping- core extracted from drilling, groundwater depth, etc. Consequently, this paper aims to show the use- application of software strater 3 in the processing and presentation of geotechnical drilling and profiles related to in-depth construction of the planned location for the construction of engineering facilities. Meanwhile, it is worth emphasizing that strater is a powerful and innovative package responsible for recording drilling data and developing cross-sectional profiles in the field of geosciences. Furthermore, strater helps to create the drilling column, and in the meantime it is a great aid to display sub-surface data using different models.