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2020
Saturday, October 31st
9:00 AM

Analysis and Characterization of Anthocyanins in Raspberry fruits (Rubus idaeus L.)

Hyrie Koraqi, University for Business and Technology
Flutura C. Ajazi, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

This study focuses on the analysis and characterization of anthocyanins from Raspberry fruit (Rubus idaeus L.). The fresh Raspberry fruits were extracted with the solvent of EtOH 96% /0.1% HC l (1:1, ratio) at room temperature for 4 h in the dark. The extraction process was the important step in the isolation and identification of anthocyanins. For this purpose, anthocyanin contents in Raspberry fruits were determined with UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The results showed that the total anthocyanin content (expressed as cyanidin-3-glucoside) in the extract was 277.2 mg/L, which is equivalent to 9.33 mg total anthocyanin per gram of dry material.

"DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN MILK OF KOSOVO "

Sami Makolli, University for Business and Technology
H Aliu, University of Prishtina
S Kadiri, AAB College
S Dizman, 4 Department of Physics, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University
L Kastrati, University for Business and Technology - UBT
B Uka, University for Business and Technology - UBT
H Karaqi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
G Hodolli, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:45 AM

The aim of the present study was to investigate heavy metal contents and radionuclides of cow’s milk. In total 37 random milk samples were collected from different sources (32 from milk collection centers and 5 imported). Quantitative analysis was performed using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer to determine heavy metals concentrations and the assessment of human health risks related to milk consumption in the region of Kosovo. Concentrations were estimated of thirty-five heavy metals in milk samples but are reported only the most important elements Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb. From the analytic analysis, the results showed that the average milk concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd were higher than the suggested standards.

Determination the Dynamics of Occurrence of Scolytus Rugulosus on Fruit Orchards in Junik Region _ Kosovo

Maxhun Shehaj, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Erzen Shehaj, University of Prishtina
Bekë Pepshi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Jeton Mazrrekaj, University of Prishtina
Elbasan Cekaj, University of Prishtina

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

Top Fruit crops represent important economic activity in the Junik area, in Western Kosovo. An ever-expanding young industry faces with stresses caused by Scolytus Rugulosus (Shothole borer), an insect-pest which damages various parts of the fruit trees. This study was carried out to determine the dynamics of the pest fly in Top Fruit plantations with Apple, Sweet Cherry, and Sour Cherry crops. A passive sampling method was implemented with the use of Ethanol traps for trapping insects. The counting of trapped insects was done on daily basis. Temperature and air humidity in the study area were measured too. First adults were detected in the second week of March while the maximum emerge was in April month. At temperatures of 18-20 0 C the presence of adult insect increases, however, in late March and early April when temperatures have dropped below zero during the night and went up to + 7 0 C during the day, a significant number of adult insects were trapped too.

Genetic variability, association and diversity study among the sunflower genotypes at seedling stage based on different morpho-physiological parameters under polyethylene glycol induced stress

Uzma Ayaz, Department of Plant Breeding and Molecular Genetics, The University of Poonch Rawalakot, Pakistan, Azad Jammu& Kashmir, Pakistan

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

Drought stress directly affects growth along with productivity of plants by altering plant water status. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) an oilseed crop, is adversely affected by abiotic stresses. The present study was carried out to study the genetic variability and diversity among the sunflower genotypes at seedling stage based on different morpho-physiological parameters under Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) induced stress. A total of twenty seven genotypes including two hybrids, eight advanced lines and seventeen accessions of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were tested at germination and seedling stages in Polyethylene Glycol. Correlation and principle component analysis confirmed that germination percentage, root length, proline content, shoot length, chlorophyll content, stomatal frequency and survival percentage are positively correlated with each other hence; these traits were responsible for most of variation among genotypes. The cluster analysis results showed that genotypes Ausun, line-2, line-8, 17559, 17578, Hysun-33, 17555, and 17587 as more diverse among all the genotypes. These most divergent genotypes could be utilized in the development of inbreed which could be subsequently used in the heterosis breeding.

Impact of SO2 Concentration on Wine Quality

Valon Durguti, University for Business and Technology
Fatjona Popaj, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:45 AM

The purpose of this paper was the determination of some physicochemical parameters in the wine, with special emphasis on total sulfur dioxide (TSO2) and free sulfur dioxide (FSO2) concentration. The aim was to see how the professional criteria are being applied by our oenologists during different stages of winemaking, and consequently the impact of these wines may have on human health in the future. A total of 12 wine samples were analyzed. Sampling was done at three wine cellars in Rahovec – Kosovo. Samples were taken from the wine tanks and bottled wine. The types of analyzed wines have been Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon. Applying standard work protocols, the analysis were performed at the laboratory of the company Stone Castle Wine – Rahovec. The EU has set a legal limit for total SO2 of 150 mg/L in red wines and 200 mg/L in white wines. Most of the samples turned out to be within the EU permissible levels, excluding a sample in which concentration of TSO2 above the EU permissible values has been observed, as well as in some other samples, critical values of FSO2 have also been observed. As a conclusion, these wines generally do not pose a risk to human health in the future.

Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of traditional Rugova cheese

Flutura C. Ajazi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Rreze M. Gecaj, University of Prishtina
Kemajl Kurteshi, University of Prishtina
Hyrie Koraqi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Idriz Vehapi, University of Prishtina

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:30 AM

The aim of this study was the evaluation of microbial and physicochemial parameters during production and maturation of traditional Rugova cheese. Samples were collected from different points of Rugova region and transported to the laboratory under constant cooling conditions. The average number of total mesophilic bacteria was 5.1 x 10 8 cfu/ml in milk and 2.4 x 10 8 cfu/gr in maturated cheese. The number of lactic acid bacteria in milk and cheese were 3.5 x 10 6 cfu/ml, respectively 1.7 x 10 8 cfu/gr. All physicochemical parameters in milk and cheese have been within the allowed values for milk and cheese and in accordance with the standards used by the Institute of Public Health of Kosovo.

The microbiological quality of raw milk on some farms that do not have milk cooling equipment after milking

Xhavit Bytyçi, University for Business and Technology
Nazmi Hasanaj, University of Peja

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:45 AM

It has been proven that if milk does not cool immediately after milking, has an increase in the number of bacteria and acidity as well as a decrease in quality. This also has economic implications because this milk will be rated lower during categorization. 12 months research has included 1588 samples of fresh milk from farms that did not refrigerate the milk. Only milk samples which were negative in the alcohol test were included in the analysis. The count of the number of bacteria was done through the use of 3M ™ Petri films. It turns out that the average number of all samples for 12 months is 198,164 bacteria/ml. As a result, all samples for each month were evaluated with the 2nd category. During the summer months up to 20% of the samples were eliminated through the alcohol test, proving the highest bacterial presence and acidification of the milk.

The Role of Lactic Acid in Decreasing pH-Value in Wort and Its Impact on the Quality of Beer

Kastriot Pehlivani, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Arsim Elshani, University of Peja
Xheme Lajqi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Mybeshir Pajaziti, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

9:00 AM - 10:45 AM

As in all food and beverage production processes, the pH value is of high importance in wort and beer production, too. There are several processes and changes that proceed considerably faster and better at low pH-values. The pH of unboiled wort without mash acidification is about 5.6 to 5.8 and the pH of cast wort is about 5.4 to 5.6. At a lower pH many processes proceed better and faster, such as good precipitation of protein-polyphenol complexes when boiling wort at pH 5.2, less increase in wort colour, a better and clean tasting hop bitterness at a lower pH, micro-organisms less resistant at a lower pH, the range of enzymes is considerably improved because all the important enzymes, with the exception of α-amylase, are activated, the supply of zinc is increased, the extract yield is increased, etc. Therefore, it is preferable to acidify biologically during the mashing and at the end of the boiling of wort. This also impacts the other processes during fermentation and impact directly on some quality parameters of the final beer.

10:45 AM

Determination of the intensity of apple infection with the pathogen Venturia Inaequalis in correlation with the phenological phase

Mufail Salihaj, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Diellon Salihaj, University of Prishtina

Lipjan, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

Pathogen Venturia Inaequalis is one of the pathogens that causes great damage to the apple crop. The intensity of the damage depends a lot on: Phenological phase, atmospheric conditions and the type of apple cultivar. In our experiment we focused on how the phenological phase affects the intensity of pathogens. The experiment was realized on four apple cultivars which are different in terms of morphological characteristics and resistance to this pathogen. Apple cultivars that were subjected in this experiment are: Gala cultivar, Fuji, Granny Smith and Idared. The observation of these cultivars was done from the beginning of the vegetation, the flowering stage until the fruit harvest stage to the end of the vegetation.

"Effect of Whey Protein Supplementation on Physical Performance and Body Composition"

Diellza Habibaj, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematical & Natural Sciences, University of Prishtina
Arleta Rifati Nixha, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematical & Natural Sciences, University of Prishtina
Miribane Dërmaku Sopjani, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematical & Natural Sciences, University of Prishtina

Lipjan, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

Whey proteins and amino acid supplements have a strong position in the sports nutrition market based on the supposed quality of proteins and amino acids they provide. Recent studies using the stable isotope methodology demonstrate the ability of whey proteins or mixtures of amino acids with similar compositions to promote protein synthesis of the body and whole muscles. Other ways of research development explore the health benefits of whey that extend beyond protein and basic food. Many whey-derived bioactive ingredients are under study for their ability to provide specific health benefits. These functions are being investigated primarily in tissue culture systems and animal models. The capacity of these compounds to modulate obesity and improve immune function and antioxidant activity presents new applications potentially tailored to the needs of those individuals with active lifestyles. This paper will review the recent literature describing the functional properties of essential amino acids, whey proteins, whey-derived minerals and other compounds, and the mechanisms by which they can benefit active people in the context that exercise is a form of metabolic stress. The response to this stress can be positive, as with more muscle contraction and improved functionality or greater strength. However, the overall benefits may be jeopardized if immune function or general health is challenged in response to stress. From a mechanical point of view, whey proteins, their compound amino acids and / or related compounds may be able to provide substrate and bioactive components to extend the overall benefits of physical activity.

"Impact of food packaging in the spread of Covid 19"

Violeta Lajqi Makolli, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

Recently humanity throughout the world is facing the Covid 19 pandemic. More than 38 million people worldwide have been infected and 1.09 million have died from this disease. There are currently 16,425 cases of infection and 650 deaths in Kosovo. This virus spreads through air, contact with infected people and respiratory droplets. These droplets can fall on different types of surfaces and survive up to a few days. In this study we have researched the risk of the spread of Covid 19 from different food packaging materials. According to research and data from WHO, FDA, CDCP, FPF etc, respiratory droplets of infected fluid can fall on objects and surfaces. Therefore, when someone puts their hand near their mouth, nose or eyes after touching that surface they can get infected. Covid 19 can survive from a few hours to a few days depending on some conditions like the type of packaging material, lighting, temperature and humidity of the surrounding environment etc. Catching COVID-19 by touching contaminated surfaces or objects is possible, however, the risk is low. Still it is recommended that the packaging needs to be left unopened and intact for several hours, also the hygiene protocol needs to be followed to reduce the risk of spreading COVID-19.

Microbiological and Physicochemical Parameters used for the Analysis of Water Quality in Gjakova Watershed

Arianeta Nura, University for Business and Technology
Veton Haziri, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Rrona Resyli, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

This study aimed to estimate the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of water in Gjakova watershed in different months of the year. In the six months, from January 2020 to June 2020 are defined changes of these parameters such as total coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, pH, temperature, NTU, NH3, and NO2. The object of the study was treated water and untreated water from the lake. The results showed that the microbiological and physicochemical parameters of the treated water samples were within the ISO Standards for drinking water, while the parameters of the lake water samples were shown to be highest during the February and April. Therefore, periodic monitoring of water quality is recommended especially at the end of the winter season and during the spring season.

Physico - Chemical Parameters and Control Pollution in the Sateska River

Suzana Aliu, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Agran Halimi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Fidan Feka, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Valon Durguti, University for Business and Technology

Lipjan, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

The purpose of this research work has been to determine and analyze physical- chemical and pollution control parameters, like pH, sulfates, chlorides, nitrites, nitrates, ammonia, phosphates, DO, BEO5, CEO. Water samples were taken in different locations of the Sateska River and one lakeshore where the water of this river pours in the Ohrid Lake. This occurrence occurs in the lower part of the river 6.9 km before dumping when erosive material of 112.907 m3/year, from 1962 enters the Ohrid Lake, which is characterized by the richest biodiversity, the result of its ancient age, between two-three million years. The peculiar characteristic of this lake is its ability to self-regeneration. From the obtained results we can conclude that as a result of the use of different chemicals (pesticides) in agriculture and erosive discharges from the Sateska River in the Ohrid Lake, the eutrophication of the Ohrid Lake can be induced and developed, seriously endangering the existing flora and fauna of the lake.

Research on Microbiological and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Cow Milk Collected from Farms in the Region of Prizren

Arianeta Nura, University for Business and Technology
Veton Haziri, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Herolinda Halimi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Doruntina Coçaj, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

This study was conducted for 6 months in the region of Prizren. During the research period, December 2019 – May 2020 were collected 292 samples from four smallholders in the “SHARRI” dairy. Samples were collected using a proportional random sampling method. Samples were subject to microbiological (total bacterial count and somatic cells) and physicochemical ((fat, protein, lactose, SNF, TS, FPD, density and acidity, density) measurements of raw cow milk, by international standard methods. The results of samples from the four farmers showed that the number of samples that belonged to the third class of TBC count was: farmer 1 - 34/292, farmer 2 - 34/292, farmer 3 - 39/292, and farmer 4 - 33/292 samples. From a microbiological point of view, it has been observed that stricter control of the hygienic conditions of the environment for cows and transport conditions is required.

The effect of rootstocks on leaf surface in two different apple cultivars

Kujtim Lepaja, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Lavdim Lepaja, University of Prishtina
Naim Krasniqi, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

This field experiment was designed to assess the effect of rootstocks M9 and MM106 on leaf surface in two different apple cultivars Idared and Granny Smith. The experiment was conducted in Kosovo (Anamorava region), in apple orchard using a nested experimental design. During the experiment based on two-way analysis of variance, we found significant changes on the leaf surface among cultivars, but no differences among rootstocks. The results obtained in the agro-ecological conditions of Kosovo, where it is stated clearly that in average the leaf surface have higher values of the two combinations grafts has reached the rootstock MM106 (Granny Smith 27.42 cm 2 and Idared 25.03 cm 2 ), while the grafts M9 values are relatively low (Idared 24.65 cm 2 and Granny Smith 27.04 cm 2 ). The changes introduced showed to be as result of heritable characteristics of cultivar and rootstock.

The effects of growing technologies on plant growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativum L.) under common open field conditions

Ismet Babaj, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Naim Krasniqi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Berat Durmishi, University for Business and Technology

Lipjan, Kosovo

10:45 AM - 12:15 PM

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of growing technologies on plant growth and yield of gherkins (Cucumis sativum L) under common open field conditions. The experiment was carried out at farmer’s field in Shipol, Mitrovica municipality of Kosovo. Two different growing technologies trellising (TS) and without trellising system (WTS) were applied for gherkin cultivar Dirigent F1. The effects of different growing technologies on growth parameters, yield, and chemical content of harvested fruits were estimated under common open field conditions. The results of the experimental data revealed that the application of the trellising system (TS) recorded significantly the highest vine length, more number of leaves per plant, number of fruits, and highest fruit yield. . No significant differences exist between the two applied growing technology on the chemical content of harvested fruits.

1:30 PM

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and Onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivated in Vushtrri area – Kosovo

Fidan Feka, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Agran Halimi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Suzana Aliu, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Diellza Ademi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Era Bruqi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Mirand Rudhani, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Erjeta Krasniqi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Janin Kadrija, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

The consumption of vegetables cross‐contaminated with heavy metals carries a considerable risk for humans (especially for children and pregnant women) and these dietary implications are discussed while European Food Safety Authority has been urged to look into this matter of concern. This project aims to research the degree of pollution with heavy metals in vegetable products such as potatoes and onions with toxic elements as Arsen, Leaden, Cadium, Chromium, and Nikel. The results showed that the element. As was not identified at all, then the element Pb varies from (0.002-0.035 ppm), the element Cadmium from (0.001- 0.030 ppm), the element Chromium (0.060-0.638 ppm), and the element Ni, (0.315-4.512 ppm). Potato and Onion samples were treated in the UBT Laboratory premises, and then the reading of the toxic elements of the samples was done with the ICP (plasmatic copular induction). technique. From the obtained results we can conclude that the concentrations of Pb, Cd, As, Cr, and Ni does not exceed the standards considered as a risk to human health.

Consumers’ food choice and quality perception in Kosovo

Liridona Neziri, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Hyrie Koraqi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Violeta Lajqi Makolli, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Food quality and safety belong to the most important factors of building the image of the product, brand, or country of origin at the local, regional or global markets. The main aim of the paper is to assessment the food products quality perception in the Kosovo from consumers viewpoint and to analyses the elements which contribute most to defining the quality of a food product. Different aspects of the food products quality perception were considered during our research as food hygiene, product safety, taste, brand, quality mark and safety processes in food manufacturing. The methodical approaches of the paper are based on the questionnaire survey. The computations were processed by using the statistical program SPSS. The research results point at the expiration date of the food product as the most important qualitative factor for the respondents in all consumers. On the other hand, the quality management system during the processing food as a factor is considered as of either a much importance one in terms of the product quality perception. Also, the packing as a factor is considered as of either importance one in terms of the product quality perception.

Impact of Covid-19 on cow's milk producers in Kosovo- the case of Gjilan region

Medin Zeqiri, University for Business and Technology
Emine Daci Zejnullahi, University for Business and Technology
Mërgim Mestani, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Ylli Biçoku, University of Tirana

Pristina, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

This paper aims to analyze the impact of Covid-19 on cow’s milk production in Gjilan region. It is a descriptive and quantitative survey. The random sampling technique was used to select the respondents of 71 dairy farms in three municipalities of Gjilan (Vitia, Kamenica, and Gjilan). Interviews include farms where 5-78 dairy cows are bred. Data on milk production, farm expenses, and returns for each farm were recorded during the period February- April 2020 and a comparison was performed with the same period for 2019. The farmers reported that restrictive measures undertaken as a result of Covid-19, did not have any negative impact on milk production, sales, expenses and returns, however, 26,8% of the farmers interviewed reported that milk production had decreased. Farmers should improve animal feeding in the second half of 2020 and at least achieve last year's production.

Meat consumption in Kosovo and consumer perception of animal welfare

Vlora Rama, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Meat is an important source of nutrition and include fats, protein, vitamins B1, B6, B12, D, iron and zinc. The recommended amount of protein for adults is generally 0.8gr per kg of body weight. This research determines the quality and consumption of meat. The survey include 170 people were responded about animal welfare, meat quality and consumption. From 170 respondents, 64.7% are female, 35.3% are male, which 33.5% are under 25 years old, 60.5% are 25-45 years old, 4.8% are 45-65 years old and 1.2% are over 65 years old. 96.4% of them consume meat while only 3.6% are not consuming any kind of meat. And at the end of the results we saw that most of them (64.4%) consume white meat (chicken) which is included once a week in their diet while only 35.6% consume red meat (beef/veal) which is also included once a week in their diet.

Natural sources of flavonoids and their importance in the nutrition

Egzon Hasani, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Hyrie Koraqi, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Flavonoids as natural bioactive compounds are distributed plant secondary metabolites, particularly in fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, chocolate, grape seeds, apple skin and beverages (tea, wine, and juices). Flavonols may be found mainly in fruits and vegetables, while flavones are abundant in herbs and spices. Flavanones are primarily found in a variety of citrus fruits and anthocyanidins in many colored berries. Average daily intake of flavonoids is approximately in the range of 150 to 300 mg. It strongly depends on individual, country and culture usages. In west countries main dietary sources of flavonoids consist of tea, wine and fruits, while in east countries there is consumed mainly soy with high is flavonoid content. Many studies have shown that intake of fruits and vegetables with high flavonoid content is associated with lowered risk of incidence of some diseases such as cardiovascular or cancer. These findings are attributed to experimentally confirmed biological effects of flavonoids – antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anticancer or cardioprotective. The final effect is however depending on their bioavailability, which is in the case of flavonoids not high, because in the nature dominating flavonoid glycosides can poorly penetrate through lipophilic cell membranes. Final effective molecules are flavonoid metabolites, that more or less retain their biological activities.

Oxidative stress and methods used for hydroxyl radical determination

Bashkim Misini, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Imri Demelezi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Wolfhardt Freinbichler, University of Vienna
Laura Della Corte, Università degli Studi di Firenze
Wolfgang Linert, University of Vienna

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Understanding the role of oxidative stress in brain as well as developing medical strategies to reduce its damaging potential in the aging process and pathogenesis of cancer, neurological diseases like Alzheimer’s diseases and Parkinson’s diseases and other incurable illnesses is an important direction in medicine and biochemistry over the world. This review outlines the processes by which hROS may be formed, their damaging potential and determinations methods. Also, the questions upon the nature of reactive hROS in a Fenton (like) system plays a crucial role will be addressed on this part and several lines of evidences will be presented in order to clarify this issue. Highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (hROS) have been implicated in the etiology of many diseases, therefore monitoring of hROS should be extremely helpful to further investigate and understand the role of hROS in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders and to develop medical strategies to reduce the damaging potential of hROS. The very short half-life of OH• requires the use of trapping agents such as salicylic acid or phenylalanine for detection, but their hydroxylated derivatives are either unstable, or implicated as reactant in biochemical processes. Based on already successfully in vitro and in vivo work done in our group in the past two decades, we decided to use sodium terephthalic acid as a trapping agent, the hydroxylation of which yields only one stable and highly fluorescent isomer, 2-hydroxyterephthalate (OH-TA).

Spreading distinction of grapevine viruses during time course 2015-2017

Lumta Dida, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Sixty-two percent (62%) of grape vine samples were collected from the most important Kosovo’s region Rahovec, twenty-five percent (25%) from Suhareka and thirteen percent (13%) from Prizren.To assess the spread of GFLV, ArMV, GLRaV-1,2,3, GVA and GVB viruses, the plants were sampled according to a random scheme during December. Sampled plants were extracted in the laboratory and analyzed by ELISA test using mono- and poly-clone antibodies. Considering the research which was conducted in 2015, 2016 and 2017 in order to diagnose GFLV, ArMV, GLRaV-1, GLRaV-2, GLRaV-3, GVA and GVB viruses in the most widespread grape cultivars in Kosovo, which are of mixed origin, i.e. the cultivars Smederevka, Vranac, Prokupa and Afuzali - domestic varieties or Balkan varieties and foreign or imported varieties such as: Game, Italian Rizling and Muscat Hamburg, different results have been obtained during three years of study. In most viruses, the infection rate has been on the rise, if we compare the results of 2015, 2016 and 2017. The only virus GFLV, has resulted in a reduction in infection from 2015 to 2017.

Sugars Play an Important Roles in Expiry Date, Aroma and Tast in Different Fermented Dairy Products

Ibrahim Mehmeti, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Lorike Salihu, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Imri Demelezi, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

Sugars play an important role in metabolic processes in lives. However, different sugars transfer differently energy in different pathways. This differentiation makes a food product to have different test and to increase the quality of products. In another hands, lactic acid bacteria play an important role in production of lactic acid and aroma compounds in fermented food. The aim of this paper describes the growth rate and metabolic pathway of different products and bacteria when different sugars are added in products and bacteria. To explain this model Enterococcus faecalis is added in experiment and different sugars such as glucose, galactose, fructose, lactose, maltose, and sucrose. The experiment has been analysed by growing the culture for 24h and check the growth rate and analyse by high performance liquid chromatography. The result shows that glucose is the best metabolize sugars followed by fructose, sucrose, maltose, galactose, and lactose as a carbon source. While in energy transformation galactose and lactose transfer most of the energy to mixed acid fermentation compared to glucose and galactose which these energies it transfers into the homofermentative- fermentation. These results are ambitious results to apply and possibly to increase the expiry date of fermented products in dairy industries.

The important of international trade in managing food security risks during the pandemic time in Kosovo

Emine Daci Zejnullahi, University for Business and Technology
Elmedina Bajgora, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

1:30 PM - 3:00 PM

International food trade, in addition to being an economic activity, is also an activity deeply linked to food security, the well-being of the population and politics. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of international trade on food security during the COVID 19 pandemic in Kosovo. Although trade in agricultural products during this period has been shown to be more flexible than trade in other commodities due to the essential nature of food products, additional disruptions in the supply chain can start and undermine this sustainability. Interruptions in food supply chains pose a risk to global and local food security, especially in Kosovo given that according to (Ask, 2020), trade in goods in 2019 represents a trade deficit of 3.113.34 billion euros. Despite the concluded trade agreements (CEFTA, SAA, FTA with Turkey), Kosovo continues to face a large negative trade balance, with an annual trade deficit that reached the value of over 3.1 billion euros in 2019, reflecting a low level of competition in domestic, and foreign markets and with a lack of product variety. Trade plays a crucial role in global food security. This point has been made by several international economic organizations and groups since the outbreak of COVID-19.

3:15 PM

Determination of vitamin A and E in fodder concentrates and cow milk from the region of Gostivar, North Makedonia

Ilmije Vllasaku, Agricultural State Advisor in Government of North Macedonia

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:15 PM - 4:45 PM

Given the importance of oxidative effects on the health of dairy cows and their milk production, a study has been carried out on the concentration of antioxidants, vitamins A and E. The main objective of this research was to determinate the vitamins A and E in fodder concentrate and raw cow milk from the region of Gostivar, North Macedonia. The amount of vitamin A in fodder concentrate was 23.92 mcg/100 g, while the amount of vitamin E was 35.7mcg/kg. The amount of vitamin A in raw cow milk was 38.25 mcg/100 g, while the amount of vitamin E was 1.09 mcg/100g. The concentrations of vitamins A and E in the raw milk tested concerning the standard packed milk are low, and they are also low relative to the concentrates respectively.

Further effort for building Albanian food composition database, and its enrichment with Kosovo food composition data

Luziana Hoxha, University of Tirana
Renata Kongoli, University of Tirana
Anna Giertlová, Food Composition Data Bank and Consumer's Survey, National Agricultural and Food Centre, Food Research Institute. Bratislava, Slovak Republic.
Ibrahim Hoxha, Faculty of Agrobusiness, University „Haxhi Zeka“, Pejë, Republic of Kosovo
Arsim Elshani, Faculty of Agrobusiness, University „Haxhi Zeka“, Pejë, Republic of Kosovo

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:15 PM - 4:00 PM

Food sector is changing rapidly and getting more complex day by day. Many innovative food products are producing and trading all over the world and the consumers are more aware about food content and nutritive and healthy values. Getting information on the scientific way, different tools and software are prepared by qualified experts for collecting, registering, and analyzing food composition data, as beneficial for food policies, industries, studies, modeling diets and foods, etc. This paper aims to present a simple model of Albania food composition database (FCD) and further efforts for its development by involvement and using also for Kosovo food data. Registration of 70 raw, pre-prepared and food products, which are most consumed and produced in both countries, was achieved by Daris database management system, developed and licensed by National Agricultural and Food Center-Food Research Institute, in Bratislava, as part of Official Development Support Program for Central and Eastern Europe in the food composition area, this initiative is financially supported by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic. Future enhancement of FCD, is needed for Albania and it will be useful also in neighbor countries as well.

Looking at the Perceived Benefits of Feeding Program in the Eyes of the Stakeholders

Jane M. Candelanza, Public School Teacher, DepEd-Negros Oriental Division, Negros Oriental, Philippines
Sheena Mae T. Comighud, Basic Education Researcher, DepEd-Bayawan City Division, Bayawan City, Philippines

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:15 PM - 4:45 PM

The study focused on the effects of school-based feeding program in the eyes of the stakeholders conducted on March 2019 to grades 1 to 6 beneficiary pupils, selected teachers, SBFP In-Charge and School Head of Mansagomayon Elementary School, District 4 of Sta. Catalina, Division of Negros Oriental. A descriptive design was used in this study whichd eemed appropriate in the context of this study since the researcher will describe the effectiveness of the SBFP as employed in the research locale. Additionally, Key informant interview with the selected representatives of the identified groups of stakeholders was conducted to provide qualitative support to the claims of the study. Since this study used the KII as the principal mode of data gathering among the participants, a semi structure interview guide was used. The said interview shall be composed of 7-10 questions that were patterned to achieve the objectives of this research conduct. However, the researcher has the leeway to ask a follow up questions given the goal of the research is not yet clarified to the respondents. Meanwhile, the secondary data such as the baseline and endline data of the respondents’ nutritional status were taken from the Nutrition Coordinator of the school. Mean and t-test was used to analyze the data. Results revealed that the nutritional status of the pupils were below normal despite of the efforts in giving supplement and dietary assistance of the school through the conduct of feeding program hence the very purpose of the program in providing complete meals and enhancing the nutrition of these pupils were not thoroughly achieved. The mean of pupils’ baseline and end line data shows a highly significant difference on the baseline and endline data results for the pupils’ BMI with a P-value of 0.000 and t-value of - 3.570.This implies that the results of the BMI of the pupil beneficiaries differ significantly before and after the 120 days feeding program. This means that there was a change and movement in the nutritional status of the pupils as the program was implemented.

Refining Process and Quality Control of Sunflower Oil

Etrit Beshtica, Fluidi sh.p.k, Gjilan
Luljeta Ajdini, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Mentor Arifi, Fluidi sh.p.k, Gjilan
Lenda Ramadani, Fluidi sh.p.k, Gjilan
Donjeta Halimi, Fluidi sh.p.k, Gjilan

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:15 PM - 4:45 PM

The quality control of edible sunflower oil is monitored through several stages, from unrefined oil, during the whole refining process as well as the bottled oil. Initially is checked the unrefined oil by means of analyzing its origin, enabling us to understand what the origin of the oil is. Subsequently are checked the compounds that need to be removed from the sunflower oil in the refining process. We also pay special attention to the preservation of some compounds present in the unrefined oil. The methodologies applied for oil quality control are physical- chemical and microbiological methods.

"Some statistical data on urban waste collection in the city of Prizren and ways to evaluate them in useful products"

Sami Gashi, University for Business and Technology
Besa Veseli, University for Business and Technology
Vehebi Sofiu, University for Business and Technology

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:15 PM - 4:45 PM

The development of society is related to the high consumption of a variety of food products, the use of electro-household appliances, furniture, and its furnishing, clothing, plastic materials, etc. The increase of urban waste is considered both from the social development and the increase of the population, for example, Prishtina 1,116,355 tons/year, Prizren 90,858 tons/year, Peja 41,748 tons/year, Mitrovica 64,663 tons/year. The increase in urban waste will affect our environment (soil, water, and air). Even though our city is endangered by their lack of treatment, their quantity is constantly increasing. We need to change the concept that waste is worthless. On the contrary, urban waste contains value because every product obtained from them contains the value. Product = raw material (monetary value) + energy + human labor. So, through waste assessment, we reduce their volume, while through their treatment we obtain raw materials (, for example from the treatment of waste paper waste, we will protect forests, but in the meantime, we will also protect the environment. Urban waste is of different natures organic nature (kitchen waste…) metal (tins ...) plastic (water and liquid bottles…) glass, paper, leather, textiles, etc. This means that there are different ways and methods to assess urban waste. Among the most important methods of their assessment are Recycling, Reuse, and processing as secondary material in other processes. Urban waste also has its specificity. Many of these urban wastes can serve as raw material for many sectors of our city's economy (eg recycling of plastic waste, paper, and metal waste). But the assessment of urban waste cannot be realized successfully liquidated in case there is no organization for their selection from the beginning. This should be done by the collection company with a good treatment of the collection staff.

Study of the Drenica River by Analyzing Physical and Chemical Parameters

Shkumbim Shala, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Astrit Shala, University of Prishtina
Burim Asllani, Department of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection AGH University of Science and Technology
Bahri Hyseni, Department of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection AGH University of Science and Technology

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:15 PM - 4:45 PM

Lack of plants for the protection of a major problem in the world, therefore Kosovo is exposed to levels of pollution assessment from urban, industrial, and another wastewater. From a scientific point of view, the purpose of this official research is to combat pollution in the waters of the Drenica River. The Drenica River is the largest tributary on the left bank of the Sitnica River (47.6 km), with a biased city of 446.4 km2. The average flow of the river Drenica in Sitnica is 2.0m3 / s. In this paper we have determined the degree of pollution assessment in the Drenica River, by strengthening some physical and chemical parameters such as: information metals, dissolved oxygen, saturation with O2, chemical recommendation of oxygen, biochemical oxygenation of oxygen, carbon total organic, nitrates, detergents, phosphate ions, chlorides, phenols, turbidity etc. Marriage samples at 3 locations for more than ten months (to clarify the exact result) and can be analyzed in the laboratories of the Kosovo Hydrometeorological Institute. Methods used in available laboratories: Absorption atomic spectrometry, Spectrophotometer and UV-vis spectrophotometer.

"The Impact of Evergreen Hedges Plants (Thuja occidentalis L. and Cupressocyparis leylandii L.) in Garden Structure"

Nexhat Balaj, University for Business and Technology

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:15 PM - 4:45 PM

Evergreen hedges are a popular choice to have in the garden or as part of outdoor space. They provide year-round leaf cover and a consistent, attractive, full hedge look. Evergreen shrubs are favorable with gardeners where privacy is required. Thuja occidentalis species are the most popular hedge garden plants grown in Kosovo. Cupressocyparis Leylandii is a fast-growing hedge plant that has the quickest growth rate of approximately 75-90 cm per year. Leylandii, also known as Cupressocyparis, is a stunning hedge plant that will add elegance in garden. The purpose of our work was the study of characteristics of development stage, ornamental values and used hedge garden cultivars as integral components in landscape architecture and urban design in Kosovo. During the 2018-2020 period, the subjects of the research in our experimental field, Two evergreen plants with two cultivars have been studied:Thuja occidentalis 'Smaragd' and Cupressocyparis leylandii. The experimental design was ’randomized block’ with four replications and 200 plants for each variety. Distance of planting was 100 x 35 cm. The growth period of the plants in urban landscape design were studied from April to October under Kosovo climate conditions. For a good architecture of the urban landscape, the studied cultivars of Thuja sp. and Leylandii species, should be included in the hedge planting structure.

The Influence of NPK Fertilizers on Yield and Dry Mass Partitioning of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

Agran Halimi, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Fidan Feka, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Suzana Aliu, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:15 PM - 4:45 PM

The objective of this study was to assess the influence of NPK fertilizers on yield and dry mass partitioning of potato. The experiment was conducted in soil type Fluvisol located in Vushtrri municipality of Kosovo. Two different potato commercial cultivars (Agria and Opal) were sown in area of 1.4 ha per each treatment in two replications 0.7 ha per replication. The quantity of applied NPK fertilizers per plots were based on planed yield and soil analyses which applied technology was compared with traditional one usually applied by potato growers in experimental area. The randomly of harvested quantity of potato tubers per each experimental plot which yield, and dray mass partitioning were measured. Based on experimental data the yield and dry mass partitioning were significantly higher to both cultivars with application of NPK fertilizers based on soil analysis and plant requirements for a certain yield

The Study of Mashing Methods and Features of Fermentations Products

Mybeshir Pajaziti, University for Business and Technology - UBT
Kastriot Pehlivani, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:15 PM - 4:45 PM

If mashing is conducted at 62 to 63˚C, a higher maltose composition is obtained, and the limit is of fermentation rate is higher. The wort, which has a lot of maltose ferments quickly, and the yeast is kept suspended for a long time. Continuous mashing at 62 to 64˚C yields beer with a high fermentation limit; if these temperatures are exceeded, and continuous mashing is carried out at 72 to 75˚C, beers with high dextrin content and low fermentation limit are obtained. To produce beer, primary and secondary fermentation are performed. During primary fermentation, the obtained sugars are converted into alcohol, CO2, and lasts up to 7 days; during secondary fermentation, the beer matures, and this process lasts up to 21 days. This paper will address the importance of achieving the right temperatures during the malt heating process, as well as their importance in the development of the fermentation process.

Water quality assessment in the Alpine Lakes in the southern part of the Republic of Kosovo

Pajtim Bytyqi, University of Prishtina
Hazir Cadraku, University of Prishtina
Ferdije Zhushi Etemi, University of Prishtina
Osman Fetoshi, Department of Biology, “Nigde Omer Halisdemir University”
Rushan Ceka, “Mother Teresa” University, Scopje, Macedonia
Berat Durmishi, University for Business and Technology - UBT

Lipjan, Kosovo

3:15 PM - 4:45 PM

Alpine lakes are characteristic of high altitudes, located mainly in areas where there are no settlements. The lakes are located an altitude of over 2000 meters, their depth varies from 1m to 2m, their width from 25 to over 40m, surface from 625m to over 1600 m 2 . Most alpine lakes are covered in ice during the winter. Water quality in these lakes is the main factor that controls the status of surface water, the change in water quality is essentially a combination of anthropogenic and natural contribution. The study analyzed the physico-chemical parameters of water quality and community of macrozobenthos and diatoms in three lakes. Sampling and laboratory analysis were performed in the period 2018. Based on the data analysis of physico- chemical parameters, macrozoobenthos and diatoms the water quality in these lakes belongs to the good class.